Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox

Beyond the boundaries of established science an avalanche of exotic ideas compete for our attention. Experts tell us that these ideas should not be permitted to take up the time of working scientists, and for the most part they are surely correct. But what about the gems in the rubble pile? By what ground-rules might we bring extraordinary new possibilities to light?

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Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox

Unread postby Roshi » Mon Jan 08, 2018 2:35 am

Just a video I found. It looks we do not even know what light is, (but we know for sure what 85% of the Universe is made of):

Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox - Youtube
No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.

What is powerful about Bell's theorem is that it doesn't refer to any particular physical theory. It shows that nature violates the most general assumptions behind classical pictures, not just details of some particular models. No combination of local deterministic and local random variables can reproduce the phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics and repeatedly observed in experiments

What does this mean? Does it mean "No ammount of math based on rules can explain the Universe"? From the wiki page, Bell said that one solution to the problem (that does not break the Universe speed limit) is that everything is "predetermined".
Bell's theorem rules out local hidden variables as a viable explanation of quantum mechanics (though it still leaves the door open for non-local hidden variables). Bell concluded:

In a theory in which parameters are added to quantum mechanics to determine the results of individual measurements, without changing the statistical predictions, there must be a mechanism whereby the setting of one measuring device can influence the reading of another instrument, however remote. Moreover, the signal involved must propagate instantaneously, so that such a theory could not be Lorentz invariant.[4]

Bell summarized one of the least popular ways to address the theorem, superdeterminism, in a 1985 BBC Radio interview:

There is a way to escape the inference of superluminal speeds and spooky action at a distance. But it involves absolute determinism in the universe, the complete absence of free will. Suppose the world is super-deterministic, with not just inanimate nature running on behind-the-scenes clockwork, but with our behavior, including our belief that we are free to choose to do one experiment rather than another, absolutely predetermined, including the 'decision' by the experimenter to carry out one set of measurements rather than another, the difficulty disappears. There is no need for a faster-than-light signal to tell particle A what measurement has been carried out on particle B, because the universe, including particle A, already 'knows' what that measurement, and its outcome, will be.

I do not agree with that, also I do not agree with the "speed limit". But textbooks and 100 years of repetition, egos and careers are too strong.
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Re: Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox

Unread postby willendure » Fri Jan 12, 2018 4:03 pm

Roshi wrote:What does this mean? Does it mean "No ammount of math based on rules can explain the Universe"?

QM behaves in strange and non-intuitive ways; light passes through one of two slits as a particle, yet interacts with itself on the other side like a wave that went through both.

We could try and explain this away by saying that there must be some as yet undiscovered hidden variable in the experiment - everything is behaving in a completely deterministic classical fashion if only we could dig deep enough to find the hidden mechanism. For example, perhaps some energy from a previous photon is captured and stored somewhere in the experiment, and a subsequent photon releases it causing the interference to be a real interference between 2 light waves.

Bell's theorem attempts to prove that the QM weirdness is really real and cannot be explained away by such mechanisms.
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