Attiyah's Sun

Beyond the boundaries of established science an avalanche of exotic ideas compete for our attention. Experts tell us that these ideas should not be permitted to take up the time of working scientists, and for the most part they are surely correct. But what about the gems in the rubble pile? By what ground-rules might we bring extraordinary new possibilities to light?

Moderators: MGmirkin, bboyer

Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Fri Jan 09, 2009 5:26 am

Attiyah's Sun Theory

Attiyah's Sun theory has many hypotheses:

1- The bulk of the diffuse daylight is generated in the ionosphere by the same mechanisms that generate the polar auroras.
2- The solar X-rays and ultraviolet light are the primary origin for the energy needed to drive the global, continuous occurrence of the daytime auroral activities.
3- The global daytime auroras are capable of forming the so-called auroral corona which is the primary source of the daytime beam radiation.
4- The Sun always forms a far glowing background for the daytime auroral corona.
5- The formation of the auroral corona and concentration of its light, are both intimately related to the magnetic zenith effect.
6- The earthward spread of the light from the magnetic zenith is intimately governed by the phenomenon of aspect sensitivity.

****************



What are the eventual evidences needed to prove that Attiyah's Sun Theory is right, especially to prove that, from the perspective of the Earth, the Sun always forms a far glowing background for the daytime auroral corona?
No doubt, three practical evidences are thoroughly sufficient to prove that the Sun from the Earth involves an auroral corona:


1- Practical evidence showing the real presence of continuous, extremely bright auroras in the whole daytime ionosphere.

Respecting this evidence, the photos taken either by NASA's Polar spacecraft and Dynamics Explorer 1 are the most suitable evidence that could show the real presence of continuous, extremely bright auroras in the whole daytime ionosphere.


2- Practical evidence showing the factual presence of aurora-characterizing emissions in the direct solar beam radiation received at Earth or from a spacecraft orbiting the Earth.

Respecting this evidence, the measurements of the solar irradiance conducted by Solstice aboard Sorce are the most suitable evidence that could show the real, continuous presence of aurora-characterizing emissions in the direct solar beam radiation.


3- Empirical simulation models to verify the theory experimentally.

Regarding the experimental verification of Attiyah's Sun Theory, Birkeland's terrella and its developed and highly sophisticated models could represent the empirical evidence that the theory is right.


Conclusive Evidence that there are Continuous, Extremely brght Auroras in the whole Earth's sunward hemisphere

A preliminary notice:
It is well established that the auroral emissions have both visible and invisible wavelengths. So, the observation of auroral invisible emissions necessarily implies the presence of auroral visible ones with a proportional intensity.

Introduction:

Attiyah's Sun theory considers that the overwhelming contribution to the daylight is an ionosphere-produced light especially that light which is produced by the aurora-generating mechanisms. In other words, apart from the beam radiation that apparently comes from the Sun, the diffuse light of the daytime sky is mainly produced by the same mechanisms which generate the polar auroras. This means that auroras are not restricted to the polar region or found only in the two auroral ovals.
There are two collections of photos showing that the auroras are global, occurring around the clock, and forming the overwhelming contributions to the daylight:

Conclusive Evidence:

"The Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) uses a specially designed camera to filter out all of the light except that emitted by the aurorae themselves".


http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlin ... 5jun96.htm

http://uvi.nsstc.nasa.gov/

"With UVI, a special camera aboard the Polar spacecraft, scientists can observe the aurora borealis on the day and night side while the spacecraft is over the northern hemisphere.
Quantitative analyses of global auroral phenomena are now possible using the global UVI images of the Earth's northern polar region. By using the solar-blind, narrowband spectral images of the Ultraviolet Imager with the LBH Long filter (160-180 nm), total energy input to the auroral zone can be derived for those cases where the entire auroral oval in the field of view."

http://spacescience.spaceref.com/newhom ... ay98_2.htm

Such cameras were, and are still, used by NASA's Dynamics Explorers and Polar spacecraft.

1) Images of the dome of daytime sky taken by Dynamics Explorer 1.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/www/desai/

http://www.livingcosmos.com/images/theta.jpg

The imaging photometers aboard NASA's Dynamics Explorer 1 captured a lot of photos in UV light of wavelengths characterizing the auroral emissions. They are from the emission lines of atomic oxygen at about 130.4 and 135.6 nm and from the LBH bands of molecular nitrogen. Therefore, these auroral UV wavelengths are principal contributions not only to the auroral ovals, but also to the whole dayglow.


http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gal ... ption.html

These photos showed that all the dome of the daytime sky, from the northern polar latitudes to the southern polar latitudes, is a source of wavelengths predominantly from the emission lines of atomic oxygen at about 130.4 and 135.6 nm, and from the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of molecular nitrogen.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gal ... ption.html

Both UV LBH N2 bands and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen in the dome of the daylight seem greatly more intense than those from the auroral ovals themselves.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/theta.gif

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gal ... ption.html

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gal ... ption.html

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/plate19.gif

Moreover, it is obvious from all the photos that the source of LBH N2 bands and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen in the daytime dome is at the same height that concerns their source in the auroral ovals i.e., the LBH N2 emissions and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen of the daytime sky dome come from the same ionospheric layers which the UV LBH N2 emissions and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen of the polar auroras come from. Certainly, all UV LBH N2 emissions and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen are ionosphere-produced light generated by the same mechanisms that are associated with the auroral activities in the classical polar auroral zone.
Any way, the photos can show that both of the auroral ovals and the dome of the dayglow develop simultaneously such that their UV LBH N2 bands and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen are also enhanced at the same time.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/plate13.gif

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/theta.gif


What do these results indicate?

Really, these results conclusively and clearly indicate that the auroras are global i.e., the auroral activities occur continuously in the whole daytime ionosphere. In short, they indicate that there are continuous, diurnal extremely bright auroras forming the overwhelming contributions to the daylight.

2) Photos captured by The Ultraviolet Imager aboard NASA's POLAR spacecraft.

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outr ... anoram.gif

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outr ... /theta.gif

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outr ... emar89.jpg

Well, if the auroras are restricted to the two auroral ovals, and even if the daytime auroras are restricted to the daytime sectors of the two auroral ovals themselves, then the UVI must fail to take any photo for the dome of the daytime sky in between them.
However, the UVI images succeeded in photographing almost the whole daytime sky using the emissions that characterize auroras. This reveals that the whole daylight is always greatly rich in auroral light.

What do such photos indicate?

Really, such photos conclusively and clearly indicate that the auroral activities occur globally i.e., there are greatly active auroras always occurring in the sky of all the daytime latitudes. As well, they indicate that the daytime auroras are usually extremely brighter even than their nighttime exceptionally bright polar counterparts. Analogous to the ability of the polar bright auroras to show an auroral corona, no doubt, the diurnal extremely bright ones necessarily have their own auroral corona. With respect to the Earth-stationed observers, I consider that the latter auroral corona lies in the face of the Sun i.e., it forms a front ground for the far Sun.



Summary

How to utilize the above referred-to photos to be a conclusive evidence for proving Attiyah's Sun Theory?

First of all, we must remember some preliminary facts:

1- The used cameras were designed so that their filters allow only wavelengths characteristic of the auroral light such as LBH N2 bands and UV emission lines of atomic oxygen.
2- The photos were taken only in wavelengths that characterize auroral light i.e., it is established that these wavelengths are produced in the ionosphere only by the aurora-generating mechanisms. This means that auroral activities are occurring every where in the sky these wavelengths are observed coming from.

Results:

1) The images show that the auroral light is not confined in the auroral oval, but instead it is present throughout the whole daytime ionosphere.

2) The intensity of the auroral light in the daytime ionosphere is so greatly brighter than in the auroral oval itself.

Conclusions:

1- The mechanisms that produce the traditional polar auroras, or the auroras of the so-called auroral oval, are global i.e., the aurora-generating mechanisms are always active not only in the polar ionosphere, but also in the whole daytime ionosphere as well as in the whole nighttime ionosphere.

2- Since the intended images were taken during auroral substorms or even auroral storms, a bright auroral corona should be formed, because such formation is inevitable in such circumstances.


3- According to the world-wide occurrence of the auroral storm (magnetic storm) during which the intended photos were taken, an auroral corona, extremely brighter than its contemporary nocturnal polar counterpart, should be viewed by the people everywhere in the dayside hemisphere. At least, a diurnal polar auroral corona should be formed at the same time of the formation of the nocturnal polar auroral corona. However, this formation is inevitable because the dayside part of the polar auroral zone is under the same auroral oval in which the auroras were greatly enhanced during the magnetic storm. Moreover, during the magnetic storm the nocturnal sky of the traditional auroral zone becomes lit to the degree of making one think that the nighttime has just transformed into the daytime. According to the observation of relatively highly greater auroral invisible emissions of UV LBH N2 bands and UV lines of atomic oxygen in the dome of the daylight than those in the auroral ovals themselves at the same time during the magnetic storm, then there necessarily should be an intensity of the visible auroral emissions in the daytime hemisphere sufficient to be a source of normal daylight.

So, where do we find the auroral corona of the daytime polar auroras, or of the daytime auroras of the middle and low latitudes?
We find this auroral corona making a searchlight for the Sun. No doubt, this very auroral corona is the cause of the sunburst appearance and the dazzling rays not only of the sunrise and sunset, but also of the Sun throughout the day. In its turn, this conclusion means that the apparently solar beam radiation is predominantly from daytime, global extremely bright auroras always occurring in the whole ionosphere.

Notice:

Please enlarge all the photos of this link, and read the full captions of them all:

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/

Please give this photo a special attention:
http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/plate19.gif
Its full caption says:" Image of Earth's dayglow at ultraviolet wavelengths, primarily atomic oxygen emissions at 130.4 nm, showing several severe, transient decreases of intensities. The ring of emission at the top of this image is the northern auroral oval. This image was taken with Dynamics Explorer 1 from an altitude of 18,500 km at 1640 UT on 20 October 1981. The geographic latitude and longitude of the spacecraft position are 41° and 242°, respectively.
http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gal ... ption.html
Attiyah Zahdeh
 
Posts: 23
Joined: Fri Jan 09, 2009 5:14 am

Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Fri Jan 09, 2009 5:30 am

Decisive Evidence that the Direct Solar Beam Light Always Involves an Auroral Corona
Introduction

1) N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands are N2 UV emissions.

2) Because of its too high temperature, the Sun's composition is void of neutral molecules and molecular ions such as N2 and N2+, respectively. Hence, it is certain that N2 molecules are not present in the Sun's composition.

Accordingly, it is supposed that there would be no N2 LBH bands in the original solar light when it is received at Earth coming "directly" from the Sun. In other words, it is supposed that upon being directed at the Sun itself, neither Earth-based radiometers nor spectrometers would record any N2 LBH bands coming from it.
Is it really right that there would be no N2 LBH bands in the direct solar light wherever and whenever it is received?
Well, there are two cases:

A) Both radiometry and spectrometry measurements from outside the geomagnetosphere, such as from SOHO and YOHKOH, confirmed the absence of N2 LBH bands from the direct solar light.
B) Both radiometry and spectrometry measurements from inside the geomagnetosphere, such as from the space shuttles, High Altitude Observatory, Skylab, and other satellites confirmed the presence of N2 LBH bands from the direct solar light.
So, what did the scientists do to explain such unexpected finding of N2 LBH bands in the solar light when observed from the dark geospace by earth-orbiting vehicles?
They considered their presence as a contamination caused by N2 emissions from the so-called ram cloud.

Anyway, I consider that this interpretation is not right. Simply, in the dark geospace-based measurements, the N2 LBH bands could be received coming directly from the Sun and not from other directions. For example, on being directed at any star during the daytime, Solstice aboard Sorce could not show the presence of any significant N2 LBH bands. Moreover, lots of the measurements were carried out at high altitudes where practically no N2 molecules are present. As well, the observations from Polar spacecraft and Dynamics Explorer 1 could show that the daytime ionosphere is permanently greatly richer in the N2 LBH bands than the ionosphere of the nocturnal polar ionosphere during very bright auroras. Now, however, there are reliable, continuous dark geospace-based measurements of the N2 LBH bands in the direct solar light. These measurements are conducted by the SOLSTICE aboard SORCE.



SOLSTICE aboard SORCE Proves


The primary objective of the SORCE Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) instrument is to make precise and accurate measurements of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) through monitoring changes in incident sunlight to the Earth's atmosphere. The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) measures the total solar irradiance (TSI), a measure of the absolute intensity of solar radiation, integrated over the entire solar irradiance spectrum. To construct this product, high time cadence measurements (approximately every 50 seconds during sunlit portions of the SORCE spacecraft orbit) from the TIM instrument are combined to produce representative daily and 6-hourly values of the Total Solar Irradiance.
The SORCE spacecraft operates in a 645 km, 40° orbit providing about 15 orbits per day.
SOLSTICE consists of a two-channel grating spectrometer capable of being pointed at the Sun or at selected stars.

http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/tsi_data.html

http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/solstice_con_op.html

http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/solstice.html



Wavelengths of N2 LBH Bands

N2 LBH bands cover a wide range of UV wavelengths from 140 to 180 nm. Scientists divide them into two regions: one at shorter wavelength emissions denoted LBHs and extending roughly from 140 to 160 nm and longer wavelength emissions denoted LBHl and extending from 160 to 180 nm.

http://cspar.uah.edu/~germanyg/gg/onlin ... hsv96.html



Real Presence of N2 LBH bands in the Direct Solar Irradiance

Below you can review four selected readings from the site whose URL is: http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/sorce_data_access/. All of these four readings prove the presence of N2 LBH emissions in the direct solar irradiance from SOLSTICE. On reaching this site you can get hundreds of readings. Just click Solar Spectra in the SORCE data access menu and fill in the boxes that will appear with the suitable specifications you select: Date, Minimum Wavelength and Maximum Wavelength but not from outside the valid range: 115-1600nm. Then, all you have to do is to click the "output text" box or "output text & plot data" box.

(1)SORCE Spectral data for 4-Jun-2005 00:00:00.00


Wavelength Range: 140.5 to 159.5
Time Span: 24 hours
Quality: Indicates the average time difference between the nominal timetag (noon UTC) and the data used to generate the reported irradiance. A value greater than 0.5 for a particular row indicates that the reported irradiance is based on fill data. For a detailed description of the quality of this data please visit the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) page.



NOTE: If version is -1 in the table below, then no data was found for that
instrument for your input specifications.

Wavelength Range Instrument Data Version
---------------- ------------- ------------
115.0 - 180.0 SOLSTICE B 5
180.0 - 310.0 SOLSTICE A 5
310.0 - 800.0 SIM A VIS 1 -1
800.0 - 1000.0 SIM A VIS 2 -1
1000.0 - 1600.0 SIM A IR -1

WAVELENGTH IRRADIANCE UNCERTAINTY QUALITY
(nm) (W/m^2/nm) (W/m^2/nm)
---------- ------------- ------------- ------------
140.5 6.7781894e-05 3.1627871e-07 0.2573402350
141.5 4.0853765e-05 2.3677368e-07 0.2573383689
142.5 4.4742536e-05 2.4499359e-07 0.2547992800
143.5 5.1118736e-05 2.4633193e-07 0.2641661999
144.5 4.9949080e-05 2.4939163e-07 0.2680368432
145.5 5.3807314e-05 2.6204049e-07 0.2680077677
146.5 6.6456493e-05 2.9681834e-07 0.2679847107
147.5 8.2485392e-05 3.3989375e-07 0.2679525832
148.5 8.3943200e-05 3.5835349e-07 0.2668754758
149.5 7.5724760e-05 3.4012717e-07 0.2668539674
150.5 8.4846099e-05 3.6029888e-07 0.2641924159
151.5 9.1917612e-05 3.7322632e-07 0.2599131275
152.5 1.1469602e-04 4.3276391e-07 0.2598823603
153.5 1.2619328e-04 4.7159761e-07 0.2598587369
154.5 2.1320383e-04 7.0825841e-07 0.2611053857
155.5 1.8559382e-04 6.0519022e-07 0.2639066184
156.5 1.8389445e-04 6.0178271e-07 0.2650591406
157.5 1.6120270e-04 5.5693379e-07 0.2650514472
158.5 1.6041399e-04 5.6871327e-07 0.2650373699
159.5 1.6037117e-04 5.8036824e-07 0.2650254018

**********
(2) SORCE Spectral data for 4-Nov-2005 00:00:00.00


Wavelength Range: 140.5 to 159.5
Time Span: 24 hours




WAVELENGTH IRRADIANCE UNCERTAINTY QUALITY
(nm) (W/m^2/nm) (W/m^2/nm)
---------- ------------- ------------- ------------
140.5 6.2854050e-05 2.6423831e-07 0.2701496413
141.5 3.9393833e-05 2.0100843e-07 0.2701883619
142.5 4.2879292e-05 2.1371966e-07 0.2702221444
143.5 4.9073269e-05 2.3245892e-07 0.2702570656
144.5 4.8443441e-05 2.2527800e-07 0.2616538755
145.5 5.1924973e-05 2.3576088e-07 0.2610994652
146.5 6.4358634e-05 2.6831392e-07 0.2611144167
147.5 8.0433242e-05 3.0814872e-07 0.2611312394
148.5 8.1421443e-05 3.1102903e-07 0.2611475237
149.5 7.3453911e-05 2.9344693e-07 0.2611639270
150.5 8.1871918e-05 3.1587668e-07 0.2611816665
151.5 8.8701522e-05 3.3576057e-07 0.2611961684
152.5 1.1059993e-04 3.8891307e-07 0.2612141263
153.5 1.2053734e-04 4.2290517e-07 0.2612309373
154.5 1.9871032e-04 6.5186518e-07 0.2612491600
155.5 1.7566566e-04 5.6427192e-07 0.2612628483
156.5 1.7629113e-04 5.6707096e-07 0.2630510359
157.5 1.5561694e-04 5.4227609e-07 0.2739465069
158.5 1.5514044e-04 5.5226428e-07 0.2739459473
159.5 1.5615525e-04 5.6450134e-07 0.2739465236

**********


(3) SORCE Spectral data for 1-Aug-2005 00:00:00.00


Wavelength Range: 160.5 to 179.5
Time Span: 24 hours




WAVELENGTH IRRADIANCE UNCERTAINTY QUALITY
(nm) (W/m^2/nm) (W/m^2/nm)
---------- ------------- ------------- ------------
160.5 1.8077578e-04 5.4981312e-07 0.3182358740
161.5 2.1387240e-04 6.1195489e-07 0.3182534412
162.5 2.4629129e-04 6.9572513e-07 0.3228772106
163.5 2.6475182e-04 7.3983990e-07 0.3228674707
164.5 3.0994103e-04 8.2877113e-07 0.3228347832
165.5 4.9083491e-04 1.1808820e-06 0.3208176617
166.5 3.2912983e-04 8.7020687e-07 0.3204957525
167.5 3.8944991e-04 1.0017761e-06 0.3216619870
168.5 4.1827493e-04 1.0790822e-06 0.3226709735
169.5 5.4776007e-04 1.2910332e-06 0.3226330071
170.5 6.3015691e-04 1.4248465e-06 0.3222393614
171.5 6.3433616e-04 1.4618378e-06 0.3163178359
172.5 6.9770216e-04 1.5812794e-06 0.3162525099
173.5 7.0211757e-04 1.6800978e-06 0.3174463545
174.5 8.5946582e-04 1.9697628e-06 0.3174227652
175.5 1.0595228e-03 2.3631630e-06 0.3172392034
176.5 1.1504002e-03 2.7037138e-06 0.3166220411
177.5 1.4026539e-03 3.3378801e-06 0.3080265211
178.5 1.5670781e-03 3.8128521e-06 0.3075684703
179.5 1.5547155e-03 3.8738741e-06 0.3036018902

**********

(4) SORCE Spectral data for 5-Nov-2005 00:00:00.00


Wavelength Range: 160.5 to 179.5
Time Span: 24 hours



WAVELENGTH IRRADIANCE UNCERTAINTY QUALITY
(nm) (W/m^2/nm) (W/m^2/nm)
---------- ------------- ------------- ------------
160.5 1.7462530e-04 6.9631977e-07 0.2828774997
161.5 2.0735644e-04 7.7714316e-07 0.2828260553
162.5 2.4008012e-04 8.6179424e-07 0.2827707751
163.5 2.5605551e-04 9.1140983e-07 0.2827156242
164.5 2.9602552e-04 1.0129769e-06 0.2826618885
165.5 4.7448978e-04 1.4416812e-06 0.2830823709
166.5 3.2178487e-04 1.0616125e-06 0.2831385884
167.5 3.7556131e-04 1.2173099e-06 0.2827994426
168.5 4.0851818e-04 1.3380326e-06 0.2824423872
169.5 5.3415018e-04 1.6033501e-06 0.2823875603
170.5 6.1486066e-04 1.7738530e-06 0.2823341684
171.5 6.1962684e-04 1.8131813e-06 0.2822792736
172.5 6.8255623e-04 1.9820511e-06 0.2730527277
173.5 6.8704118e-04 2.0236524e-06 0.2718726639
174.5 8.4397274e-04 2.2932830e-06 0.2724764964
175.5 1.0372902e-03 2.4497570e-06 0.2773401900
176.5 1.1294466e-03 2.3783744e-06 0.2615510933
177.5 1.3790109e-03 2.7904193e-06 0.2630130044
178.5 1.5353509e-03 3.1206821e-06 0.2643712538
179.5 1.5254334e-03 3.2594244e-06 0.2642519884


http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/sorce_data_access/


So far, I expect that the simultaneous observations of N2 LBH bands from both UV imager aboard Polar and SOLSTICE aboard SORCE, could prove that the Sun at the Earth involves an auroral corona.



Facts about N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands:

1) The N2 LBH ultraviolet emissions have their origin in the geospace, i.e., the N2 LBH emissions don not originate in the Sun, but instead they are produced inside the geomagnetosphere-ionosphere system.

http://uvisun.msfc.nasa.gov/GG/GG33-CAM ... cience.txt

2) Geophysicists consider that the N2 LBH emissions are due solely to electron impact, i.e., the only significant excitation mechanism for the LBH emissions is electron impact excitation. In other words, the whole global N2 LBH emissions are ultraviolet light produced by the mechanism that produces them in the polar aurora.

http://cspar.uah.edu/~germanyg/gg/onlin ... hsv96.html

3) The N2 LBH emissions show a global-scale presence.

http://www.spaceweathercenter.org/SWOP/ ... R_VIS.html

4) At the time of the solar flares, the ionosphere shows a global-scale increase in the N2 LBH emissions.

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2003/2 ... 9060.shtml

5) The photos taken in N2 LBH bands by the Dynamics Explorer series and Ultraviolet Imager on board Polar spacecraft could show that intensity variation of LBH bands themselves in both the daylight dome and auroral ovals either increased simultaneously or decreased simultaneously.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/


http://www.spaceweathercenter.org/SWOP/ ... ics/1.html \

6) About two to three days after the observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) leaving the Sun earthward, N2 LBH bands become enhanced simultaneously in both the daylight dome and auroral ovals.


http://cspar.uah.edu/~germanyg/gg/onlin ... hsv96.html

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/theta.gif


Summary

According to all the definitions of the auroras and the different theories relating to their interpretation, it turns out that all of the N2 emissions in the daylight are produced by the same mechanisms that produce the polar auroras. Therefore, we can describe N2 emissions wherever observed in the daylight as auroral. However, the observations from Polar spacecraft and Dynamics Explorer 1 could show that the daytime ionosphere is permanently greatly richer in the N2 LBH bands than the ionosphere of the nocturnal polar ionosphere during very bright auroras.
Accordingly, these results mean that the hypothesis that "The bulk of the diffuse daylight is generated in the ionosphere by the same mechanisms that generate the polar auroras", is a right one. As well, these results themselves can lead us to a few inevitable conclusions:

A- Since the N2 emissions in the daylight prove that there are permanent, global very bright auroral activities in the daytime ionosphere, then the other auroral light wavelengths which normally accompany the N2 emissions in the polar auroras, especially the red O1 630.0 nm spectrum and yellowish-green O1 557.7 nm spectrum, are necessarily present in the daylight with a proportional intensity.

B- Since on comparing the intensity of N2 emissions in the daylight to the intensity of the very active polar auroras, the daytime auroras turn out to be so much brighter such that they deserve not only to be of the IBC IV auroras, but of the so-called exceptionally very bright auroras.

C- Since any IBC IV aurora, and any exceptionally bright aurora can show the auroral radiant point and its companion corona, it necessarily turns out that the daytime auroras are capable of forming an auroral corona.

A- Since, first, the direct solar light is intimately associated with the geomagnetic activities and the particle precipitations on the ionosphere and, second, the SORCE aboard SOLSTICE could confirm that the N2 LBH bands are a permanent part of the solar irradiance coming directly, it turns out that, as seen at the Earth, the Sun itself involves an auroral corona.

In aggregate, the Polar spacecraft and DY-1 could show that the intensity of N2 LBH bands in the whole daytime ionosphere is permanently much greater than their intensity in the nocturnal polar ionosphere during very bright auroras. These findings necessarily indicate that there are extremely bright auroras occurring continuously in the whole sunward hemisphere.
The measurements of N2 LBH bands conducted by the SOLSTICE aboard SORCE represent decisive evidence that the direct solar beam radiation involves auroral light. Certainly, such findings form conclusive evidence that the Sun as seen at the Earth involves an auroral corona.

*********************

Empirical Evidence from Birkeland's Terrella and its Developed Models


I see that it is possible to verify the reality of Attiyah's postulates by building a highly sophisticated terrella capable of simulating the spinning Earth with its ionosphere-magnetosphere system, the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. I strongly feel that such a sophisticated model of Birkeland's Terrella will show us the "auroral ovals", a dome of light above the supposedly sunward side, and a disk-resembling or even ball-resembling converged light, altogether.



Birkeland's Terrella Experiments


In their efforts to explain the auroral phenomenon, some geophysicists in the last decade of the 19th century introduced a hypothesis that auroras are a result of the collision of solar charged particles with the Earth's magnetic field. In order to verify this hypothesis empirically, Birekland designed an experiment wherein he used a special, magnetized little ball and bombarded it with directed streams of electrons.


(Stormer, C., The Polar Aurora, Oxford, 1955, pp. 206-213).


Well, "terrella" is the Latin for little Earth. Factually, Birkeland's Terrella produced two rings of light one around each pole. Since then the scientists developed more sophisticated models than the first Birkeland's terrella.


(Malmform's experiments, Villard's experiments, Bruche's experiments, Alfv'en's experiments, Podgorny's experiments, Danielson-Lindberg's experiments, etc.)


On operating Birkeland's terrella itself and the afterwards developed models, not only two rings of light one around each pole appeared, but also a dome of light connecting them appeared almost in all cases. (Podgorny, I.M. et al., Space Research, COSPAR Series, vol. XVI, 1976, p. 651).

Scientists still exert hard efforts to get highly sophisticated models of Birkeland's terrella.

Comments on the Results of Birkeland's Terrella Experiments



1- No doubt, the two light rings which usually appear around the two poles of Birkeland's terrella or its developed models are the simulation analogue of the so-called auroral ovals. In other terms, the auroral ovals are the natural analogue of the two light rings which usually appear around the two poles in such experiments.



2- No doubt, not only the two light rings which usually appear around the two poles in Birkeland's terrella experiments are a result of the interaction between the bombarded charged particles and the magnetic field, but the light of the dome itself is also a result of this interaction. In other words, the mechanism that produces the light of the two rings is necessarily and inevitably the same mechanism that produces the light of the dome.


3- Since the auroral ovals are the natural analogue of the two light rings in Birkeland's terrella experiments, then it is acceptable to ask: what is the natural analogue of the light dome of these experiments?
Only the dome of the daylight can represent this analogue or at least can involve it.


4- In some of Birkeland's terrella experiments a seemingly focused light appeared above the light dome without being merged in it. However, it could be said that the focused light looked like a corona.
(Stormer, C., The Polar Aurora, Oxford,1955, p. 213). (http://www.tekniskmuseum.no...
der/birkeland115.jpg).


5- In the simulation experiments, in both the rings and dome the upper limits of the light appear field-aligned. (Chang & Huang – as editors – Proceedings of the Plasma Space Science Symposium, 1965, p.136 & p. 154).
(Podgorny, I.M., as a participant, Venus, 1983, p. 994).



Conclusions:



Birkeland Terrella and its developed models showed:

1- Two polar rings of light.


2- A dome of light connecting the two rings.



3- A spot of seemingly focused light.

However, each one of these three distinct light entities must have its natural analogue.

A- The natural analogue of each of the two rings in BT is one of the terrestrial auroral ovals.


B- The natural analogue of the dome of light in BT is the dome of the daylight.


C- The natural analogue of the focused spotlight in BT is the auroral corona.


Where do we find the auroral corona of the dome of the daylight?



It is the searchlight of the Sun that gives it its sunburst appearance or its crowning rays and the radiant point.

Simply and logically speaking, my theory is that the overwhelming contribution to the dayglow is ionosphere-produced light generated by the same mechanisms that produce the light of the auroral ovals.

1) Birkeland designed his terrella so as to verify the theory that auroras are intimately associated with the precipitation of charged particles on the ionosphere.
2) In fact, Birkeland Terrella proved this theory because two light rings appeared around the two poles of the terrella.
3) In addition to the two light rings, a dome of light appeared connecting these two rings or in between them. Also, a focused spotlight that looked like a corona was noticed.
According to these results, Birkeland and other scientists agreed that the auroras are intimately associated with the precipitation of charged particles on the ionosphere.

Suppositions:

(1) Suppose that at the time of Birkeland Attiyah considered that the dome of the dayglow is intimately associated with the precipitation of charged particles on the ionosphere, and that Birkeland himself wanted to examine the reality of this hypothesis.
What do you expect was the practical evidence he was in need of in order to verify Attiyah's hypothesis?
Don't you expect that it was Birkeland Terrella?
Really, he was in need of Birkeland Terrella only.
(2) Suppose that the first time Birkeland carried out his terrella experiments was devoted to verify Attiyah's hypothesis, and that afterwards came Mr.X who considered that the auroras are intimately associated with the precipitation of charged particles on the ionosphere.
What do you expect was the practical evidence he was in need of in order to verify Mr.X's hypothesis?
Don't you expect that it was Birkeland Terrella?
Really, he was in need of Birkeland Terrella only.
(3) Suppose that Birkeland had really used his terrella experiments to examine the reality of both Attiyah's hypothesis and Mr.X's hypothesis such that they factually showed a dome of light and two light ovals around the two poles of the terrella, respectively. What do you expect was his conclusion?
Don't you expect that his conclusion was that both of the dayglow and the auroras are produced in the ionosphere by the same mechanisms?
Don't you expect that his conclusion was that both of the dayglow and the auroras are two aspects of the same phenomenon?
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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Fri Jan 09, 2009 5:46 am

The "Sunburst" Proves Attiyah's Sun Theory

Two Facts:
1) The photos of the Sun taken from inside the geomagnetosphere such as the ones taken in the white light from terrestrial orbit and at the Earth itself, show the so-called "sunburst" (rising sun effect).

2) The photos of the Sun taken from outside the geomagnetosphere such as the ones taken in the white light from SOHO and at the Moon, do not show any "sunburst" appearance.



According to these two facts, the "sunburst" appearance of the Sun is not an original appearance. In other words, the "sunburst" appearance is an aquired appearance, or say, an additional appearance. Consequently, the Sun aqiures the so-called "sunburst" from a light source active in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system.The "sunburst" usually seems as crowning rays or a dazzling beam radiation. Concisely, the only possible source capable of giving the Sun such crowning rays is the ionosphere itself due to the permanent presence, especially in its whole sunward part, of all the agents and conditions that form the prequisitions necessary for the generation of auroras having an intense brightness pretty sufficient to show a fully developed auroral corona. No doubt, the appearance of the auroral corona is the same thing as that of the "sunburst'. As well as, the auroral corona is similar to the sunburst in the complete set of its characteristics.

In aggregate, the absence of the appearance of the sunburst from the white-light photos taken for the Sun from SOHO and at Moon, can support Attiyah's Sun theory.


***************************

The Active Sun Proves
Decisive evidence from the so-described active Sun!

How Do Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections Prove Attiyah's Sun Theory?

a- It is established that the solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) take about 18 hours to 3 days to complete their journey from the Sun to reach the Earth's magnetosphere.
a. On reaching the Earth's magnetosphere, the solar flares or the coronal mass ejections cause a world-wide magnetic storm such that the severe geomagnetic disturbances could be easily recorded not only at the two traditional, polar auroral zones, but also throughout the whole sunward hemisphere.
b. As well, it is established that a world-wide magnetic storm caused by the solar flares or CMEs is normally accompanied by an auroral storm. Usually, such an auroral storm shows a great expansion of the two auroral ovals in the ionosphere of both the northern and southern hemispheres, and it also shows a great equator-ward extension of either the northern and southern aororal zones so that in such cases the auroral displays might be seen at low latitudes or even at the equatorial region.
c. At the same time of the observation of the greatly enhanced auroral activities and the considerable increase of their brightness during the magnetic storm, both the diffuse daylight and the apparently solar beam radiation become amply enhanced, too. In other terms, at the same time of the magnetic storm or auroral storm, the brightness of the Sun itself as seen at the Earth shows a prominent increase.
d. The increase of the brightness of the Sun that synchronizes with the magnetic storm or auroral storm encompasses almost the whole electromagnetic spectrum.

e. The increase of the Sun's brightness that is observed simultaneous to the magnetic or auroral storm is accompanied not only by severe geomagnetic disturbances, but also by strong radio blackout which is a phenomenon adhering to the occurrence of very active auroras.

Conclusions:

1- Since the brightness of the Sun as observed at the Earth shows a considerable increase simultaneous to the auroral storm caused by the effect of a solar flare or a coronal mass ejection on the geomagnetosphere, it becomes necessarily concluded that this increase in the apparently solar beam radiation is ionosphere-produced light generated by the same mechanisms that have just enhanced the polar auroras themselves.
2- Eventually, any light produced in the ionosphere by the same mechanisms responsible of the generation of the polar auroras is an auroral light. Hence, the magnetic storms disclose that the auroras are a global phenomenon occurring round the clock in the whole terrestrial ionosphere. Thus, we can say that there are permanent daytime auroras.
3- The previous two conclusions invoke this question: how does the light of the daytime auroras become involved in the apparently solar beam radiation?
First of all, the involvement of the auroral light in the solar beam radiation means that the very auroral light is necessarily treated to a process of convergence. Hence, another question ensues: is there any phenomenon of convergence relevant to the auroras?
Yes, there is. It is the auroral corona. So, the increased brightness of the apparently solar beam radiation during the auroral storm necessarily means an enhancement of the brightness of an auroral corona which was already involved in the appearance of the Sun as a searchlight before the occurrence of the auroral storm.
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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby junglelord » Fri Jan 09, 2009 1:31 pm

Wow, nice post. I took a while to read thorough it. I like it. Makes total sense to me.
:D

Moreover, during the magnetic storm the nocturnal sky of the traditional auroral zone becomes lit to the degree of making one think that the nighttime has just transformed into the daytime.

I was thinking this very thought last night (I am exactly half way to the north pole, exactly) as the moon shoon down from 12:00 position, straight above....seemed like daylight and I had this revelation that the plasma sheath that connects the earth and moon would produce this intense "light". Which kinda hit me with a certain sense of "knowing" that I tend to take it as a revelation, which I happened to have last night, so nice syncronist post. Thats pretty weird and cool at the same time. Yes the universe talks to me and its not english, but its always confirmed in english. Thanks for that.

Concerning the work by Birkeland, well its a kettle of information, just like Tesla. Concerning the results, I wonder if any amount of daylight could ever be presented as "pure" sunlight.
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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby davesmith_au » Wed Jan 14, 2009 3:26 pm

Attiyah, the Thunderbolts forum is NOT a publishing house. There are plenty of free hosts and very cheap hosts available for you to construct your own website. It is preferable that you do that, and then provide smaller posts with links to your own site if you think it is relevant to EU. There's every chance that should you continue to use our forum as a publishing site, your posts will be deleted, and all your work will be wasted.

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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Sun Feb 08, 2009 11:09 pm

davesmith_au wrote:Attiyah, the Thunderbolts forum is NOT a publishing house. There are plenty of free hosts and very cheap hosts available for you to construct your own website. It is preferable that you do that, and then provide smaller posts with links to your own site if you think it is relevant to EU. There's every chance that should you continue to use our forum as a publishing site, your posts will be deleted, and all your work will be wasted.

Dave Smith.
Forum Administrator.


Dear Davesmith,
I thank you for your interest.
However, my other theories will be posted here in a precise form.
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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Sun Feb 08, 2009 11:14 pm

No doubt, tens of thousands of real images taken by the "Visible Imaging System/Polar – The University of Iowa/NASA-GSFC" are alone fully capable of proving Attiyah's Sun theory. These images show that the aurorae are global and occurring continuously in the whole ionosphere.

1- All the photos of the "Visible Imaging System/Polar" taken in auroral UV light such as the O1 wavelength 130.4 nm could clearly show that the aurora is a permanent, global phenomenon.

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/theta.gif


2- All the photos of the "Visible Imaging System/Polar" taken in auroral visible wavelengths that characterize the auroral emissions, especially 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm, and 391.4 nm, could also clearly show that the aurora is a permanent, global phenomenon.

http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/vis/images/

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outr ... /vislr.jpg


==================


http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/

http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/vis/ima...us_images.html

http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/vis/ima...of_Yesterdays/
http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/sai/gallery/

http://www-pi.physics.uiowa.edu/www/desai/

http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._16_00_00.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._01_13_41.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._09_02_51.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._17_20_03.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._17_17_22.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._18_19_14.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._07_00_00.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._07_17_15.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._07_13_13.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._07_23_33.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._22_03_29.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._24_14_57.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._16_19_53.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._16_01_18.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._15_16_10.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._06_00_00.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._16_00_00.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._26_11_47.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._26_13_07.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._21_03_02.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._27_22_05.html
http://vis.physics.uiowa.edu/survey/..._18_00_00.html

N.B.

"The Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) uses a specially designed camera to filter out all of the light except that emitted by the aurorae themselves".


http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlin ... 5jun96.htm

http://uvi.nsstc.nasa.gov/
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Re: Attiyah's Sun

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Mon Feb 09, 2009 8:51 pm

1- The bulk of the diffuse daylight is generated in the ionosphere by the same mechanisms that generate the polar auroras.


I guess I should say hello before picking on your idea here, so "hello". :)

I'm afraid that is certainly incorrect. The bulk of the visible light is most definitely coming from the photosphere. That is true even in a Birkeland solar model by the way.

2- The solar X-rays and ultraviolet light are the primary origin for the energy needed to drive the global, continuous occurrence of the daytime auroral activities.


Actually, it is the charge separation between the photosphere and heliosphere that drives the solar wind, that powers the aurora.
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Attiyah's Stars

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Wed Feb 18, 2009 12:10 am

Attiyah's Stars



1- Irrespective of the spontaneous glow of the stars, from the perspective of the Earth the stellar light we observe and deal with is predominantly a magnetosphere-ionosphere produced light.


2- Each star has its own tidal impact on the geomagnetosphere.


3- The stellar impact on the geomagnetopsphere leads to the formation of a bulge that cascades down the magnetospheric layers such that it eventually maps in the ionosphere.


4- The star-formed bulges in the ionosphere are the sites we see the stars at.


5- The magnetosphere-ionosphere produced light that concerns the star is duplicated in the other side of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system via mirror resonance.




N.B.The magnetosphere-ionosphere system has two sides: the daytime side and the nighttime side.
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Attiyah's Zodiacal Light and Attiyah's Gegenschein

Unread postby Attiyah Zahdeh » Sun Mar 29, 2009 9:04 pm

Attiyah's Zodiacal Light

Attiyah's zodiacal light theory is four propositions:


1- Due to its contents of the plasma and different systems of electric currents, including the ring current, the Earth's magnetic tail forms a theatre rich in continuous electric discharges and magnetic field-plasma reactions.


2- The zodiacal light is due mainly to the electric discharges that occur continuously in the Earth's magnetic tail.


3- The major portion of the zodiacal light is generated in the plasma sheet.


4- Only very small ratio of the zodiacal light is solar light reflected from on the plasma contents of the tail especially the plasma sheet.




Attiyah's Gegenschein


1- The gegenschein is a light produced in the Earth's magnetic tail.

2- The gegenschein is associated with the neutral sheet and current sheet of the Earth's magnetic tail.


3- The gegenschein becomes markedly enhanced when a plasmoid structure is formed.

4- The gegenschein is mainly generated via electric discharges.

5- Only very small ratio of gegenschein is solar light reflected from on the plasma of the neutral sheet, the current sheet, and the plasmoid.

===============
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Re: Attiyah's Zodiacal Light and Attiyah's Gegenschein

Unread postby earls » Sun Mar 29, 2009 9:21 pm

"plasma"; "electric" - Please accept me.

Please delete such topics with prejudice.
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