(Galaxies Like Necklace Beads)
Now it seems the Herschel telescope is showing us that stars form like beads on a string too... Though it's only mentioned in passing, I think it's worth noting and considering further.
(Big Pix from Herschel)
http://www.skyandtelescope.com/communit ... 75062.html
Is this unexpected? Certainly not under the EU model. In fact it seems to be an expectation in the Plasma Cosmology model and by extension the EU model.Notice the bright points of star formation happening inside a few of the coldest filaments, almost like pearls on a string.
(Assembling the Solar System)
(Twinkle, Twinkle Electric Star)Wal Thornhill wrote:Birkeland currents align themselves with the ambient magnetic field direction. The hourglass z-pinch shape has been confirmed in the magnetic field of a star-forming region. (See SCIENCE Vol 313 11 August 2006). And in laboratory z-pinch experiments, the plasma tends to form a number of “beads” along the axis (see HH34 above), which “scatter like buckshot” once the discharge subsides.
It seems like the Herschel images are pointing to exactly the kind of thing that Thornhill is talking about (I seem to recall the "scattering like buckshot" quote is a reference to once of the papers by an independent researcher Anthony Peratt, though I can never recall which one)...Wal Thornhill wrote:An electric star is formed by the equivalent of a lightning bolt in a molecular (plasma) cloud. Just like earthly lightning, cosmic lightning scavenges, squeezes and heats matter along the discharge channel. Where the squeeze is most intense, the current may ‘pinch off’ to give the effect of ‘bead lightning.’ In high-energy plasma lab discharges researchers have found that hot plasma ‘beads’ (known as plasmoids) form along the discharge axis before “scattering like buckshot” when the discharge quenches.
One is tempted to wonder whether the "cold" filaments of plasma are simply "de-thermalized" plasma under the influence of strong electric fields? Not unlike the explanation by Thornhill and Don Scott relating to sunspots.
(THE SUN — Our Variable Star)
(The Electric Sun Hypothesis)Wal Thornhill wrote:In the electric model of the Sun, where the solar electric field is strong in the coronal holes, protons of the solar wind are being strongly accelerated away from the Sun. Their random motion becomes less significant in a process called de-thermalization. Outside the coronal holes, where the coronal electric field is weaker, the protons move more aimlessly. As a result they suffer more collisions and move more randomly. The degree of random movement of particles directly equates to temperature. So the solar wind is fastest where the corona appears coolest and the solar wind is slowest where the corona appears hottest — as Ulysses found.
So, again, are the filaments "cold" because they're just overall low-energy? Or is it because they're under the influence of strong electric fields accelerating charged particle and making them to flow in largely parallel directions (electric currents), thus minimizing side-to-side motion and collisions, thus minimizing random, chaotic "thermal" motions? One wonders whether the filaments will eventually be shown to be girded with non-trivial magnetic fields not unlike the "magnetic slinky" wrapped around molecular clouds in Orion?Don Scott wrote:Temperature Minimum
Charged particles do not experience external electrostatic forces when they are in the range b to c - within the photosphere. Only random thermal movement occurs due to diffusion. (Temperature is simply the measurement of the violence of such random movement.) This is where the 6,000 K temperature is measured. Positive ions have their maximum electrical potential energy when they are in this photospheric plasma. But their mechanical kinetic energy is relatively low. At a point just to the left of point c, any random movement toward the right (radially outward) that carries a + ion even slightly to the right of point c will result in it being swept away, down the energy hill, toward the right. Such movement of charged particles due to an E-field is called a 'drift current'. This drift current of accelerating positive ions is a constituent of the solar 'wind' (which is a serious misnomer). As positive ions begin to accelerate down the potential energy drop from point c through e, they convert the high (electrical) potential energy they had in the photosphere into kinetic energy - they gain extremely high outward radial velocity and lose side-to-side random motion. Thus, they become 'dethermalized'. In this region, in the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere, the movement of these ions becomes extremely organized (parallel).
Might the stellar "type" also be indicative of the electrical goings on (assuming one considers the electric model to be a valid guess at what's going on)?
(Stellar Evolution in the Electric Universe)
Best,In the ES model the important variable is: current density (Amps/sq m) at the star's photospheric surface. If a star's current density increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric granules) get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue-white), and get brighter. The absolute luminosity of a star, therefore, depends on two main variables: current density at its effective surface, and its size (the star's diameter) ...