Sprites, Jets, and Elves

Historic planetary instability and catastrophe. Evidence for electrical scarring on planets and moons. Electrical events in today's solar system. Electric Earth.

Moderators: MGmirkin, bboyer

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Mon Mar 24, 2008 10:55 pm

Posted: Sun Feb 17, 2008 5:04 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "StefanR"

mgmirkin wrote:
Am I really THAT transparent?


As a plasma-crystal :lol:

But seriously:
<link to old forum thread no longer valid>

Just a lucky guess ;)
_________________
"And surely struggle against him we must in every possible way who would annihilate knowledge and reason and mind, and yet ventures to speak confidently about anything."
Plato, Phaedo
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Mon Mar 24, 2008 10:57 pm

Posted: Mon Feb 18, 2008 9:06 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "mgmirkin"

StefanR wrote:
mgmirkin wrote:The number of electrical processes now known in the atmosphere seems to keep growing and growing and growing!


That list could be expanded, of course it's just extra differentiations of the same thing and ball lightning.


Actually, I've managed to add a bajillion more articles above, and expand the list of known electrical processes in the atmosphere by at least 3-4 more, probably more. The list is getting rather long! Even without breaking out specific types of lightning (anvil-crawler, spider, etc. etc.), though I did add ball-lightning. Good call! :D

Not sure which article led me to the cache of the good stuff. But, man! I'm amazed how many references I've been able to find in a short time. Sometimes you just get lucky! :!:

Maybe I'll have to pull my favorite few, and include them as references for the blog entry I'm working on. Err, going to work on. Was going to start, then got sidetracked with all those links. Still need to sit down and read them all! Good lord that's a LOT of information...! One of these days I'll get it all read...

~Michael Gmirkin
_________________
"The purpose of science is to investigate the unexplained, not to explain the uninvestigated." ~Dr. Stephen Rorke
"Common sense is an uncommon virtue" ~Unknown attribution
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Mon Mar 24, 2008 10:58 pm

Posted: Mon Feb 18, 2008 11:05 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "mgmirkin"

(The Global Circuit)
http://globalcircuit.phys.uh.edu/

(Solar Linkages to Atmospheric Processes)
http://globalcircuit.phys.uh.edu/SLAP/index.htm

Seriously, don't even ask me where I come up with this stuff, 'cause I probably couldn't tell you anyway. I don't even remember where I ran across these. Well, the first links to the second. Don't know what got me to the first, tho'...

Ohh, right, the Atmospheric Electricity homepage...

(Atmospheric Electricity HomePage)
http://ae.nsstc.uah.edu/

Another handy page:

(Lightning Dictionary)
http://wvlightning.com/glossary.shtml

(Lightning Types and Classifications)
http://wvlightning.com/types.shtml

(Artificial and natural lightning: Practical comparisons)
http://wvlightning.com/labsparks.shtml

(Explanation of cloud-to-ground lightning)
http://wvlightning.com/cgdesc.shtml

Cheers,
~Michael Gmirkin
_________________
"The purpose of science is to investigate the unexplained, not to explain the uninvestigated." ~Dr. Stephen Rorke
"Common sense is an uncommon virtue" ~Unknown attribution
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Mon Mar 24, 2008 10:59 pm

All found posts for recovery.

- 30 -
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Sat Mar 29, 2008 1:23 am

junglelord wrote:Posted: Tue Feb 05, 2008 10:27 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Based on what they say are the ELF Schumann resonances a longitudinal energy? I assume they are from what I gathered.

The two researchers discovered that the same giant positive ground flashes that cause sprites also excite Schumann resonances--electromagnetic waves in the natural Earth-ionosphere waveguide. By contrast, the lower atmosphere is transparent and the D region of the ionosphere, where ne is about 100 cm-3, forms a conductive waveguide only in the ELF and very-low-frequency (VLF) ranges (3-25 kHz). The reflecting waveguide effect in the Schumann resonance frequency range (3-40 Hz) is vital for the global detection and analysis of sprite-producing lightning from a single measurement station.13

Lightning, the auroras, glow discharges, and sprites are all luminous plasmas characterized by intermediate concentrations of free electrons. With an electron density of 1018 cm-3 in the hottest channels (30 000 K), lightning has been shown to backscatter microwaves as a conductor at wavelengths as short as a few centimeters.14 The auroras, with a luminosity comparable to the brightest sprites, provide strong radar backscatter in the megahertz region and are still detectable by radar in the UHF region (400 MHz). This behavior is consistent with electron densities in the range of 105-107 cm-3.


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."


Well, it was a toss-up on which thread to post this to, thought about the telluric current thread but since Shumann Resonance (S/R) has been mentioned, this looks as good a place as any, particularly given the rest of the lightning context.

[any emphasis will be mine]

Annales Geophysicae, 23, 1335–1346, 2005
SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2005-23-1335
© European Geosciences Union 2005
Annales Geophysicae

Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in
Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan
M. Hayakawa1, K. Ohta2, A. P. Nickolaenko1,3, and Y. Ando1

1 The University of Electro-Communications, Department of Electronic Engineering,
1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo 182-8585, Japan

2 Chubu University, Department of Electronics Engineering, 1200
Matsumoto-cho Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501, Japan

3 Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine
Received: 6 December 2004 – Revised: 14 February 2005 – Accepted: 22 February 2005 – Published: 3 June 2005

Abstract.

[expand]The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been
monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya) in Japan since the
beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe
earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake) on 21 September
1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance
data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have
found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance,
possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is
the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999
(Chia-yi earthquake) with a magnitude again greater than
6.0). Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi
earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this
event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual
increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance
mode [see below - arc-us]and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency
(1.0 Hz) from the conventional value on the By magnetic
field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating
in the NS meridian plane
. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals
appeared from about one week to a few days
before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation
of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to
coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction
indicates toward South America). Also, the pulsed
signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed
with the “carrier” frequency around the peak frequency of
the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the
second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had
much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the
anomaly appears one day before and lasts until
one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the
fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than
the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other
characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding
result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although
the emphasis of the present study is made on experimental
aspects, a possible generation mechanism for this anomaly
s discussed in terms of the ELF radio wave scattered by a
conducting disturbance, which is likely to take place in the
middle atmosphere over Taiwan. Model computations show
that the South American thunderstorms (Amazon basin) play
the leading role in maintaining radio signals, leading to the
anomaly in the Schumann resonance
.

Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric disturbances) – Electromagnetics
(Wave propagation) – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Lightning)

Abstract here: http://www.ann-geophys.net/23/1335/2005 ... -2005.html
Accessible (no subscript./no fee) full pdf download here: http://www.ann-geophys.net/23/1335/2005 ... 5-2005.pdf (2,994kb ~ 3mb)


A few excerpts:

1 Introduction
[expand]Electromagnetic phenomena associated with seismic activity have
been extensively discussed, e.g. see the comprehensive monographs
on these subjects by Hayakawa and
Fujinawa (1994), Hayakawa (1999), and Hayakawa and
Molchanov (2002). Particularly intriguing are short-term
electromagnetic phenomena, which appear either as precursory signatures
or as effects around the earthquake date.
Recently, a lot of evidence on the presence of such
seismo-electromagnetic phenomena has accumulated. We
have been using mainly two major methods of measurement for those
seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The
first is the passive measurement of direct emanation of such
seismogenic emissions in a wide frequency range from DC
to VHF. Convincing observational evidence, especially on
the seismo-ULF emissions, has been obtained for several
large earthquakes (including the Spitak, Loma Prieta, and
Guam earthquakes)
(e.g. Hayakawa et al., 2004; Hattori,
2004; Hayakawa and Hattori, 2004). Another is the active
(or radio) probing of seismo-perturbations taking place
in the atmosphere and ionosphere by means of radio transmitter
signals; that is, these seimo-atmospheric and ionospheric
perturbations are detected in the form of propagation
anomalies of transmitter signals in different frequency ranges
from VLF/LF to VHF
. Many anomalies in the subionospheric
VLF/LF have already been observed
, which enabled
Hayakawa et al. (1996); Molchanov and Hayakawa (1998);
Molchanov et al. (1998); Hayakawa et al. (2004); and
Hayakawa (2004) to study the morphological characteristics
of seismo-ionospheric perturbations, as well as the generation
mechanism of such seismo-ionospheric perturbations
in terms of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling

(Hayakawa et al., 2004). However, we do not think that
the number of convincing seismo-electromagnetic phenomena
is sufficient enough to persuade the seismologists who
are still very skeptical about the presence of these
seismoelectromagnetic phenomena
.

4 Anomalous behaviors in SR phenomena observed at Nakatsugawa

The SR resonance takes place in the Earth-ionosphere cavity
driven by electromagnetic radiations from lightning discharges
,
which are concentrated in the tropical region (Nickolaenko and Hayakawa, 2002).
The fundamental frequency is f1 7.8 Hz (the first SR mode, n=1)
and higher harmonics are located at f2 13.9 (n=2), f3 20.0 (n=3),
f4 26.0 (n=4 Hz), etc.
Of course, we know that the SR intensity
(not only fundamental, but also higher modes) depends on
the source-observer distance. However, when an observer is
located at middle latitude (like in Japan), the fundamental
mode n=1 is known to be usually the strongest, and the intensity
is known to decrease with the mode number. We now
describe the anomalous SR behaviors which are likely to be
associated with the Chi-chi earthquake.

4.1 Resonance structure


Emergence of ionospheric perturbations prior to a large
earthquake has already been evidenced by means of
subionospheric VLF/LF propagation anomalies (Hayakawa et al.,
1996; Molchanov et al., 1998). [expand]Because these subionospheric
VLF/LF signals are known to be reflected from the
lowest ionosphere (D region at day and lower E layer at
night), it is already believed that the lowest ionosphere is
perturbed a few days to about a week before large earthquakes.
Our recent study with the use of over-horizon VHF
signals has indicated the presence of atmospheric (altitude
a few tens of km) perturbations about one week before
the earthquakes (Fukumoto et al., 2001). ELF propagation,
including SR and ELF transients, is connected to two
characteristic heights (h1 and h2) (Greifinger and Greifinger, 1978).
The first altitude h1 is the height where the displacement current
at a given frequency becomes equal to
the conductivity current. It is the height at which the atmosphere
becomes a conducting medium (the electric field
does not penetrate to the altitudes above h1). The h2 is the
height where the fields change from wave-like to diffusionlike
(only the magnetic field component reaches the altitude
h2).
The characteristic value of h1 at SR frequencies is approximately h1
50 km, while h2 90 km (Nickolaenko and Hayakawa, 2002; Mushtak
and Williams, 2002). Therefore, we can understand that the
height range responsible for ELF propagation is perturbed in
association with earthquakes, taking into account the experimental
or observational evidence of seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric
perturbations mentioned before. The scale of the perturbation in the upper
ionosphere is estimated as radius R (in km)=exp (M), where
M is the magnitude (Ruzhin and Depeuva, 1996). This yields
R2000 km for the magnitude of the Chi-chi earthquake
(M=7.6), which means that seismo-atmospheric and
seismoionospheric perturbations have the spatial scale of, at least,
one Mm. These perturbations seem to be ready to reflect the
ELF waves just around the epicenter of the Chi-chi earthquake
(in Taiwan) to be observed at the observatory. Liu et
al. (2000) have studied the f0F2 for this Chi-chi earthquake,
and have found that the precursors appeared 1.6 days prior
to this earthquake in the form of the recorded f0F2 decrease
below its associated lower bound. This means that some kind
of anomaly is surely occurring in the ionosphere.
Of course,
the generation mechanism of seismo-ionospheric perturbations
is not well established, but Hayakawa et al. (2004) have
suggested a few possible mechanisms.

Lastly, we comment on the geomagnetic activity during
the relevant period, because it may be possible that the geomagnetic
activity may influence the SR anomaly. Though not shown as a figure,
the geomagnetic activity is not severely
disturbed, so that the present SR anomaly is likely to have
nothing to do with the geomagnetic activity.
Finally, we can suggest the lithospheric source.
Kulchitsky et al. (2004) have performed the detailed computations
of ULF/ELF waves in the complicated lithospheric structure.
We have to try to find any resonance effects
in the lithospheric waveguide (or cavity)
.

Acknowledgements. This study is partly supported by the Mitsubishi Foundation and Japan Society of Promotion of Science (#15403012), to which we are grateful.


This statement was one that caught my attention, not sure what to make of it:

"The first altitude h1 is the height where the displacement current at a given frequency becomes equal to the conductivity current. It is the height at which the atmosphere becomes a conducting medium (the electric field does not penetrate to the altitudes above h1). The h2 is the height where the fields change from wave-like to diffusionlike (only the magnetic field component reaches the altitude h2)."

Apologies if this has been referenced or mentioned before.

bryan
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby bboyer » Tue Apr 01, 2008 5:44 am

There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
bboyer
 
Posts: 2410
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 10:50 pm
Location: Upland, CA, USA

Terrestial Gamma-ray Flash

Unread postby StefanR » Mon Apr 07, 2008 4:38 am

It's a little bit of old news, and it probably is already inside the thread already, but anyway very intersesting stuff and a very nice computergraphic going along with that:

NASA Satellite Observes Mysterious Earth Energy
Scientists using observations from NASA's Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite detected flashes of gamma ray energy in Earth's upper atmosphere in greater detail than ever before.
A team of researchers from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UC-SC), University of California, Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), and the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada, reported new findings about these bursts of energy, called terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs).

TGFs are very short blasts of gamma rays, lasting about one millisecond, emitted into space from Earth's upper atmosphere. They are thought to be emitted by electrons traveling at 99.99 percent of the speed of light (186,000 mps), when they scatter off of atoms and decelerate in the upper atmosphere.The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory first discovered TGFs in 1994. However, BATSE's ability to count the TGFs or measure their peak energies was limited. Observations from RHESSI raised the maximum recorded energy of TGFs by a factor of 10, and indicate Earth gives off approximately 50 TGFs or more daily.

"This is a very interesting process involving extreme physics right here on Earth. If we can understand the process here, it might give us insights into similar processes in less accessible parts of the universe," said David Smith, an assistant professor of physics at UC-SC and first author of the paper. "The energies we see are as high as those of gamma rays emitted from black holes and neutron stars," Smith said.

While it remains unknown exactly how electron beams accelerate fast enough to produce TGFs, Smith said it may involve the build-up of electric charge at the tops of thunder clouds due to lightning discharges. This results in a powerful electric field between the cloud tops and the ionosphere, the outer layer of Earth's atmosphere.

"Regardless of the exact mechanism, there is some enormous particle accelerator in the upper atmosphere that is accelerating electrons to these very high energies, so they emit gamma rays when they hit the sparse atoms of the upper atmosphere," Smith said. "What's exciting is we are getting data good enough for the theorists to really test their models."

TGFs have been correlated with lightning strikes and may be related to visible phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere over thunderstorms. RHESSI investigators plan to collaborate with other researchers to investigate how various phenomena are related, Smith said.
http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2005/feb/HQ_05054_Earth_Energy.html

Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning
ImageArtist's conception of lightning strikes above the clouds triggering gamma-ray bursts. The red spark is a red sprite, blue jets are the short ones, and the TGF is the purple flash.
http://www.nasa.gov/mpg/108253main_TGF_640.mpg
Nice visuals!

Named Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), these very short blasts of gamma rays lasting about one millisecond, are emitted into space from Earth's upper atmosphere. Scientists believe electrons traveling at nearly the speed of light scatter off of atoms and decelerate in the upper atmosphere, emitting the TGFs.

ImageRed areas are regions that receive a lot of lightning, as recorded by satellites, while the flashes are individual TGFs observed by RHESSI. Note that the TGFs occur more frequently in regions with higher lightning probability.
http://www.nasa.gov/mpg/108255main_tgf_640x480.mpg

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/rhessi_tgf.html
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
User avatar
StefanR
 
Posts: 1371
Joined: Sun Mar 16, 2008 8:31 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby davesmith_au » Mon Apr 07, 2008 5:54 am

Wow Stephan, that is one excellent find. Er, even if the professor's name sounds a bit sus... :lol:

NASA article wrote:"This is a very interesting process involving extreme physics right here on Earth. If we can understand the process here, it might give us insights into similar processes in less accessible parts of the universe," said David Smith, an assistant professor of physics at UC-SC and first author of the paper.[highlight=yellow]"The energies we see are as high as those of gamma rays emitted from black holes and neutron stars,"[/highlight]Smith said.



Really gets to me, why he couldn't put the last sentence around the other way - The energies we see from gamma rays emitted from black holes and neutron stars are as high as the TGF energies right here on planet Earth...

Does nature do anything the hard way? Nope. So why do we have to imagine black holes and neutron stars colliding to make the GRBs in "outer space" when not only do we use electricity in our labs but our very own mother nature provides a glowing example :roll: of the easiest way right here in our own upper atmosphere.

It's high time our scientists, using OUR money, woke up and smelled the roses and started making sensible correlations between how we KNOW things are done here, with how they may be done "out there". Or to put it another way, we KNOW we can make gamma rays with electricity, we KNOW nature does it the same way in our own upper atmosphere, why on Earth should we think it takes the imaginary constructs of theoretical physicists (no offense to the intelligent ones out there) to do it in space? We have perfectly good examples, one man-made, one in nature, of gamma rays produced by electricity - unless of course there's some SMBHs (Super Miniature Black Holes - like the little ones they plan to make in the LHC...) in our upper atmospheric lightning banging into each other...

Stephan, I certainly hope this one becomes a TPOD or a Thunderblog - it's one of the best examples yet of where cosmology has gone wrong.

Cheers, (professor) Dave Smith :mrgreen: (not!!) 8-)
"Those who fail to think outside the square will always be confined within it" - Dave Smith 2007
Please visit PlasmaResources
Please visit Thunderblogs
Please visit ColumbiaDisaster
User avatar
davesmith_au
Site Admin
 
Posts: 828
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 7:29 pm
Location: Adelaide, the great land of Oz

Re: Recovered: New info on Sprites

Unread postby StefanR » Mon Apr 07, 2008 7:20 am

Oh my, only now do I see. :lol:

By the way you might be interested in looking at the .ppt in the plasma-torus-thread. There might be some intricate interrelations maybe ;)
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
User avatar
StefanR
 
Posts: 1371
Joined: Sun Mar 16, 2008 8:31 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Ion structures in Inner Magnetosphere .ppt

Unread postby StefanR » Mon Apr 07, 2008 8:06 am

Here is another powerpoint-presentation. This time observations of energy-dispersed ion structures.
Particle transport from the plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere regions

1. Energy-dispersed structures of ions in the inner magnetosphere observed at high-
and low-altitude satellites
2. Nose structures
2.1 Interball Auroral ION data: Ordinary nose structures
2.2 Polar CAMMICE/MICS data: Intense nose structures
2.3 Conjugate study: Nose structure observed both at Interball and Polar
2.4 Modeling of intense nose structures
3. Wedge-like structures
3.1 Observations by Viking, types of wedge-like structures
3.2 Observations by CLUSTER CIS
3.3 Observations by Akebono LEP
3.4 Modeling of wedge-like structures


Nose structures in the inner magnetosphere

* Smith and Hoffman, 1974, Explorer 45:
“There exist ‘nose’ structures in proton
spectrograms beginning at lower L values
with a flux increase in the energy range
15-20 keV. The flux increase spreads to
both higher and lower energies at larger
L values and remains at high intensity
beyond L=5.3… It always
extends into the plasmapause...”
Spatial structure, not temporal

* Ejiri at al., 1978, 1980, Explorer 45:
time-dependent drift trajectories of ions
coming from the near-Earth plasma sheet

Intense nose structures: Statistical results (1)

* less events at dawn than at dusk
* max events at midnight and noon
* deepest penetration at midnight and noon
* no correlation with Kp
* max events at Kp=1,
* max observations at Kp=1
* normalization by Kp: max at Kp=3

Intense nose structures: Statistical results (2)

* no intense noses during quiet times
* observed also during relatively small disturbances
* deeper penetration during larger disturbances
* observed after LANL injection event (25 minutes - 2 hours)
* structure lives quiet a long time after formation (days)

Summary for nose structures

Nose structures are always present in the inner magnetosphere at all MLT:
regular -
during quiet times, characteristic energy below 10 keV,
weaker flux (10^3-10^4),
large-scale convection and corotation, long formation times (10-20 hours).
intense -
during active times (substorms), characteristic energy above 10 keV,
stronger flux (10^5-10^6), fast earthward shift of previous population by
impulsive electric field associated with substorm dipolarization,
2 Re for about 1 hour, long living.


Wedge-like structures in the inner magnetosphere

 Not many studies on the low-energy (< 1-5 keV)
fine structures in the ring current region;
 Yamauchi et al., 1996: Viking and Freja data –
wedge-like dispersed ions - energy-latitude
dispersed structures of trapped sub-keV ions;
 Ebihara et al., 2001: determination of types of
wedge-like structures and modelling;
 Also observed by Interball, Equator-S, Polar
Viking satellite:
* elliptical orbit
* apogee of 13500 km
* perigee of 817 km
* inclination of 98.8°
* 262 min period
positive ions with
0.04 -1.25 keV and
1.25-40 keV

Clear wedge-like structures observed by Akebono LEP
WL structures consist of trapped
particles (PA around 90 degrees)
3 WL structures identified, lowest energies at:
2151 UT, 0.1 keV, L = 5.6, 0320 MLT, 11° PAeq
2153 UT, 0.3 keV, L = 5.2, 0325 MLT, 12° PAeq
2156 UT, 0.6 keV, L = 4.7, 0332 MLT, 15° PAeq

Summary for wedge-like structures

Wedge-like structures:
characteristic energy below 10 keV (Cluster, Akebono) or below 1 keV (Viking),
on the dayside,
55º-70º MLAT,
stable, spatial structures,
Type 1: energy increasing with latitude, temporal changes in the source distribution function
in the near-Earth tail and/or substorm impulsive electric field,
Type 2: increasing with latitude and subsequently decreasing with latitude, temporal changes
in the source distribution function in the near-Earth tail,
Type 3: decreasing with latitude, isolated injection channels in azimuthal direction.

Summary for wedge-like structures: Akebono

◙ We studied energy-dispersed ion structures, called wedge-like structures (WL), observed by
Akebono LEP instrument.
◙ The observed ion structures are trapped ions extended in energies from 100 eV up to few keV in Type 1
sense, with maximum flux at above 1 keV at inv. lat within 60-70 deg.
◙ They are mainly concentrated in the dawn LT sector, Viking and CLUSTER observations are in dayside
sector – orbit-dependent statistics
◙ January 6-9, 1997 observations analysed in details: January 6 was very quiet day, later each WL
observation was after a small substorm, time differs.
◙ Backward tracing of lowest energies in WLs seen on LEP spectrograms in Kp-dependent large-scale
electric and magnetic fields showed easy access of plasma sheet particles to Akebono orbit with longest
time of 5 hours.
◙ Artificial increase of source number density in the plasma sheet with 1 minute duration was successful to
reproduce the observed WLs (similar to Ebihara et al, 2001).
◙ Introducing the observed (LANL MPA) variations of number density and temperature did not result in
reproducing the observed spectrograms, no observations of large 1 minute variations necessary for WL formation
◙ Role of substorm-associated fields should be considered


http://www.ava.fmi.fi/~nataly/particletransport.ppt
About 3MB, I believe.
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
User avatar
StefanR
 
Posts: 1371
Joined: Sun Mar 16, 2008 8:31 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

Unread postby MGmirkin » Mon Apr 21, 2008 5:20 pm

(Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes)
http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/%7Etohban/ ... icle_id=32

It seems that lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes are closely related in timing and proximity.

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very brief bursts of gamma radiation (typically around 1 millisecond long) coming upwards from the Earth's atmosphere from somewhere in the vicinity of a thunderstorm.

[...]

Sprites and TGFs were guessed, for several good reasons, to be related. Theorists refined an idea called relativistic runaway breakdown to explain where the gamma-rays come from. In this process, one or more high-energy "seed" electrons (provided, perhaps, by a cosmic ray) are accelerated by a strong electric field and knock further electrons off other atoms, which are thus "born" with high energy, too. These electrons create bremsstrahlung radiation when they interact with nuclei in the atmosphere just as solar-flare electrons do at the Sun.

[...]

Image

[...]

We learned two things right away from these first events: that TGFs are much more common than previously thought, and that they extend up to gamma-ray energies as high as 30 MeV, with just the spectral shape predicted by the relativistic runaway model.

[...]

Sideshow or opening act?

Since then, several collaborations have been comparing the global map of RHESSI TGFs to maps of lightning (Figure 2), studying the average TGF spectrum in detail (Figure 3), and comparing individual TGFs with radio signals from the associated lightning. All of these lines of study seem to be pointing to a common conclusion: that TGFs are not associated primarily with the exotic sprites, elves, and blue jets, which occur at very high altitudes, but with lightning itself. The TGFs we see may be the tip of the iceberg, and many more probably await, buried from our view by overlying atmosphere. They may even turn out to be the still-unknown trigger mechanism for lightning.


Cheers,
~Michael Gmirkin
"The purpose of science is to investigate the unexplained, not to explain the uninvestigated." ~Dr. Stephen Rorke
"For every PhD there is an equal and opposite PhD." ~Gibson's law
User avatar
MGmirkin
Moderator
 
Posts: 1667
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 11:00 pm
Location: Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Re: Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

Unread postby StefanR » Mon Apr 21, 2008 9:05 pm

Very nice to put it there, a while ago I posted some in the sublime "New info on Sprites"-thread:
Terrestial Gamma-ray Flash

and

Ion structures in Inner Magnetosphere .ppt

and maybe this could add some insight:

Cell Dynamical System Model for Thundercloud Electrification

and maybe also

The Inner Magnetosphere
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
User avatar
StefanR
 
Posts: 1371
Joined: Sun Mar 16, 2008 8:31 pm
Location: Amsterdam

Re: Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

Unread postby MGmirkin » Mon Apr 21, 2008 11:18 pm

StefanR wrote:Very nice to put it there, a while ago I posted some in the sublime "New info on Sprites"-thread:


Ahh, must've missed it... A rather interesting result.

~Michael Gmirkin
"The purpose of science is to investigate the unexplained, not to explain the uninvestigated." ~Dr. Stephen Rorke
"For every PhD there is an equal and opposite PhD." ~Gibson's law
User avatar
MGmirkin
Moderator
 
Posts: 1667
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 11:00 pm
Location: Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Re: Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

Unread postby webolife » Tue Apr 22, 2008 9:32 am

A couple thoughts/questions on TGFs and Lightning:
1. Are TGFs associated with positive or negative lightning?
2. GRBs from outer space affect our atmosphere apparently... any association between TGFs and GRBs?
3. I see GRB's generally associated with "pinch" effects at the galactic/stellar scale. Before coming to EU I thought these were some type atomic/molecular scale "decay" phenomenon, related to gravitational compression shock, but now I see the Z and theta pinch phenomena as viable options. In a lightning strike, is the beadiness of lightning related to "pinching", and could that be causing the TGFs?
4. Are TGFs and Lightning flashes two views of the same phenomenon?
Truth extends beyond the border of self-limiting science. Free discourse among opposing viewpoints draws the open-minded away from the darkness of inevitable bias and nearer to the light of universal reality.
User avatar
webolife
 
Posts: 2528
Joined: Mon Mar 17, 2008 2:01 pm
Location: Seattle

Re: Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

Unread postby MGmirkin » Tue Apr 22, 2008 10:11 am

webolife wrote:A couple thoughts/questions on TGFs and Lightning:
1. Are TGFs associated with positive or negative lightning?
2. GRBs from outer space affect our atmosphere apparently... any association between TGFs and GRBs?
3. I see GRB's generally associated with "pinch" effects at the galactic/stellar scale. Before coming to EU I thought these were some type atomic/molecular scale "decay" phenomenon, related to gravitational compression shock, but now I see the Z and theta pinch phenomena as viable options. In a lightning strike, is the beadiness of lightning related to "pinching", and could that be causing the TGFs?
4. Are TGFs and Lightning flashes two views of the same phenomenon?


Well, for one, I think they're still in the process of designing several new missions / instruments to study at least a few of these questions. Neg/pos lightning might be ferreted out (don't know if they're looking at that specifically)? Don't recall if they said they'd be looking at GRBs. Though I seem to recall one or two unrelated articles had intimated that GRBs may play a role in cloud formation and/or other atmospheric processes. So, it would certainly be interesting to see if there were any interesting correlations to be found.

I think there are two theories of the "string of pearls" or "sausage" formation of lightning:

1) Lightning channels twist and kink, where the channel travels in the same direction as the line of sight, it appears to be brighter. Where it travels perpendicular to the line of sight it appear dimmer, this giving the mistaken impression of bright sections interspersed with dim sections.
2) It's an actual plasma effect or sausage instability, wherein the channel pinches off into discrete sections as it completes, thus there are in fact periodic breaks in the channel which exit arc / glow mode prior to the stuff between the pinched points.

It's not always clear whether one or the other is responsible for the look inf beaded lightning. Don't know if it's ever been fully resolved?

~Michael Gmirkin
"The purpose of science is to investigate the unexplained, not to explain the uninvestigated." ~Dr. Stephen Rorke
"For every PhD there is an equal and opposite PhD." ~Gibson's law
User avatar
MGmirkin
Moderator
 
Posts: 1667
Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2008 11:00 pm
Location: Beaverton, Oregon, USA

PreviousNext

Return to Electric Universe - Planetary Science

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests