Anaconda wrote:What evidence does suggest is the Utah basin was under water and the pre-historic water level receded. Salt water from that geologic age of high water penetrated deep into the underlying crust initiating super critical water processes and salt deposition along with crust initiated hydrothermal fluid venting.
seasmith wrote:In the Utah basin, the authors suggest multiple evaporation cycles based on the the nature and source of the intervening sediment layers. There was apparently plenty of of time for the various strata to form and lithify.
Anaconda wrote:seasmith presented a description of the Utah basin which read, in part:...[there was] thousands of feet of salt... The resulting Paradox Formation is 65 to 85 percent salt and is interbedded with layers of gypsum and anhydrite.
Both gypsum and anhydrite are products of hydrothermal fluid processes.
Anaconda wrote:Successive salt pans would be highly layered, salt alternating with layers of mud and/or silt sediment. Mud and/or silt would be the thicker layers, as is observed in today's salt pans...
What is observed in the deep salt is pure halite (salt), remarkably pure, in fact, without mud or silt layers and in areas offshore which show no evidence (other than halite, itself, which is readily explained by the super critical water, hydrothermal theory) of ever being an evaporation salt pan environment. Salt pans invariably have mud or silt layers below the salt because they are a product of sedimentary processes. So, the "crevices" you speak of would be filled in with mud or silt (which is actually what is observed in areas that are the product of sedimentary processes).
seasmith wrote:Abiotic (baryonic) gas is the initial source of the liquids and the salts, wether or not they are collected by trapping morphologies deep below the crust, Or if they seep up through a permissive crust, enter the atmosphere to be chemically transformed, condensed, precipitated, etc, etc; and then laid back down in sedimentary deposits to be transformed Again by heat and pressure.
Anaconda wrote:Seasmith, in your opinion, how far out into the Atlantic Ocean do you think these Brazilian & West African oil deposits exist? How far away from the respective coastlines does this deep salt exist? What do you think of the idea that large, commercial oil deposits could exist all the way out to (or near) the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?
seasmith wrote:The other side of the coin is that more seepage probably means less deposition.
seasmith wrote:[trapping ability depends] upon contingent pressures, lithic porosities and layer geometries (slopes). The duration of particular terrestrial morphologies is also a factor to consider.
Anaconda, June 14, 2012, wrote:Again, the question is whether abiotic, full-alkane spectrum petroleum is deposited below the seafloor in commerical quantities far off the coasts of the various continents?
The answer may lie in a type of geologic fault known as a Transform Fault...
Wikipedia wrote:A transform fault or transform boundary, also known as conservative plate boundary since these faults neither create nor destroy lithosphere, is a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction. Furthermore, transform faults end abruptly and are connected on both ends to other faults, ridges, or subduction zones. While most transform faults are hidden in the deep oceans where they form a series of short zigzags accommodating seafloor spreading (see graphic at right), the best-known (and most destructive) are those on land at the margins of tectonic plates. Transform faults are the only type of strike-slip fault that can be classified as a plate boundary. Transform faults show up on the seafloor as valleys that may be even deeper than the rift valleys of spreading ridges.
Wikipedia wrote:While most transform faults are hidden in the deep oceans where they form a series of short zigzags accommodating seafloor spreading (see graphic at right)...
Offshore wrote:Available data today, mostly provided by 3D seismic, oil and source rock geochemistry, and 3D basin modeling reveals a close match between the South American and West African margin basins with respect to their pre-salt depositional sequences, including reservoir and source facies of the pre-salt tectono-sedimentary sequences.
This strong similarity allows the predictions of huge discoveries of light oil and gas in the pre-salt sequences of Angola, Namibia, Gabon, and Congo, Marcio Mello, president of the Brazilian Association of Petroleum Geologists and CEO of the recently launched Brazilian company HRT Oil & Gas, told Offshore magazine.
Offshore wrote:In the past three years, four of the eight biggest oil discoveries in the world were in the deepwater Santos basin of southern Brazil, which includes the Tupi, Iara, Jupiter, and Guara oil fields. This area encompasses several other successfully tested prospects such as Bem-te-Vi, Carioca, and Parati fields. Volumes are surprisingly large; up to 18 Bbbls of oil. Such discoveries emphasize that exploration has just begun in most of the ultra deepwater of the Greater Campos basin of Brazil’s southern margin.
Offshore wrote:The charge and accumulation simulation model for the presalt province suggests a potential reserve in the Cluster area of Santos basin much larger than that reported, getting numbers to 60 Bbbls of oil reserves. The discoveries are of light oil (31° to 37° API) with low sulfur and are lacustrine in origin.
The supergiant accumulations of light oil, condensate, and gas found in the Tupi, Carioca, Parati, Guara, Iara, Bem-Te-Vi, and Jupiter study areas are trapped below a huge evaporitic sequence that can hold significant hydrocarbon column heights, a key to establishing one of the most prolific petroleum systems of the world: The Great Lagoa Feia Petroleum System (Mello, et al., 1995 and 2009).
Offshore wrote:The geological and geophysical stratigraphic and structural framework used in the 3D geological model.
Offshore wrote:Located in an isolated, ultra-deep sector of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), Shell’s Perdido is the world’s deepest offshore oil drilling and production platform. Moored in 2,450 m (8,000 ft) of water in Alaminos Canyon block 857, the Perdido development opens up a new frontier in deepwater oil and gas production, and represents a number of firsts in the offshore oil and gas industry. These include:
•First commercial production from the Lower Tertiary reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico
•First full host subsea separation and boosting in the Gulf of Mexico, removing about 2,000 psi of backpressure from the wells
•First spar wet tree direct vertical access (DVA) wells in water more than 2 km (1.2 mi) deep.
Perdido is also the world’s deepest direct vertical access spar, and the facility acts as a hub for and enables development of three fields – Great White, Tobago, and Silvertip. It gathers, processes, and exports production within a 48-km (30-mi) radius. Tobago, in roughly 2,925 m (9,596 ft) of water, will be the world’s deepest subsea completion. The project is operated by Shell Oil Co., which owns 35%; with Chevron (37.5%) and BP (27.5%) owning the remaining interest.
Production from the Perdido development began in March, and is expected to ramp up to annual peak production of more than 100,000 boe/d.
Offshore wrote:There are as many as 35 wells in the Perdido development plan.
Mohriak and Rosendahl wrote:Abstract
Integration of seismic, potential field, and borehole data from conjugate basins along the South Atlantic continental margin, particularly the northeastern Brazilian and northwestern African segments, indicates that the rift architecture is controlled by fracture zones that extend from the oceanic crust and penetrate through the continental crust, locally corresponding to Precambrian structures in cratonic regions. The fracture zones may divide the continental margin into several compartments with independent sedimentary depocentres, separate crustal domains along oceanic transforms, and affect the rift architecture by shearing. Oceanic transform zones may leak igneous rocks originated from the mantle.
This work discusses conjugate sedimentary basins in the South Atlantic salt basins, particularly from Jacuípe to Sergipe-Alagoas on the Brazilian side, and from Gabon to Rio Muni on the African side. The following aspects are emphasized: (1) rift depocentres are controlled by border faults subparallel to the margin and by transverse faults that may continue as transform fractures in the oceanic crust; (2) the southernmost segment of the South Atlantic continental margins is characterized by Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks that underlie continental lacustrine Neocomian to Barremian syn-rift sediments; (3) the pre-rift sequences (Mesozoic and Palaeozoic sediments) that underlie the syn-rift depocentres in Gabon and Sergipe/Alagoas are mainly devoid of volcanics; (4) there is seismic evidence of magmatic underplating in the deeper portions of the continental crust, which are expressed by antiformal features locally aligned with transform fractures; (5) basement-involved extensional faults and volcanic activity along leaking transform faults are imaged along several conjugate segments of the margin, particularly along the equatorial margin (Romanche fracture zone); (6) in some segments of the divergent margin, the transition from outer rift blocks to oceanic crust is characterized by wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors with a possible origin associated with emplacement of oceanic ridges; (7) locally, the outermost rift blocks near the continental-oceanic crust boundary seem to be highly eroded by post-rift uplift caused by transform fault shearing or by magmatic underplating; (8) tectonomagmatic episodes climaxed in the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary in northeastern Brazil and extended to the Late Tertiary on the West African margin, forming large volcanic complexes along transverse lineaments that affect both oceanic and continental crust.
Petroleum Geo-Services wrote:The Gulf of Guinea is proving to be one of the most prolific oil and gas provinces in the world. A series of new, world-class discoveries have been made during the last few years, stepping out into deep water from proven nearshore oil provinces in Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Angola.
Petroleum Geo-Services wrote:The structural framework for prospectivity offshore West Africa was created by the opening of the South Atlantic (Figure 3). The rift phase, or period of initial break-up, started during the Early Cretaceous . The drift phase or sea-floor spreading started during Middle Cretaceous, followed by subsidence of the margins and the oceanic crust.
Figure 3: Sketch of early sea floor spreading between Africa and South America. Red areas indicate newly generated oceanic crust. Hatched areas indicate stretched continental crust.
Petroleum Geo-Services wrote:Rocks close to the break-up zones are exposed to different tectonic forces, dependant upon their location with respect to plate boundaries. Thus, rocks close to an incipient spreading axis were extended and faulted into grabens or half grabens, accompanied by intrusion and extrusion of volcanic material. Rocks close to the right-lateral transform faults (Figure 3 - cf. offset in the spreading axis) also experience volcanism, but the deformation is similar to what we find along large wrench faults: pull apart basins, normal faults, folds and thrust folds. As sea floor spreading takes place, fracture zones form in the wake of the diverging plates. Fracture zones are normally distinct topographic elements and can delimit sub-basins (Figure 4).
In the transition between the rift and drift phases, marine water entered into the rifted areas and formed evaporates due to the restricted circulation of seawater.
Figure 4: Fracture zones (lineaments in the sea floor topography offshore Africa) in the oceanic crust show right-lateral movement between Africa and South America. Fracture zones also tend to offset sub-basins and affect sedimentation.
Petroleum Geo-Services wrote:In the Cote d'Ivoire-Ghana-Togo- Benin-Nigeria area the present coastline is more or less parallel to the direction of movement between the Africa and South America when drifting started. It therefore represents a classical transform [fault] margin. The Nigerian coast from Lagos southwards is more or less orthogonal to the direction of movement between the Africa and South America. Hence, this part of the Gulf of Guinea represents a passive margin.
The current Niger Delta is today located close to where a triple junction formed before sea floor spreading. This failed triple junction was formed by the Benue Trough (Figure 3), the spreading axis and the transform fault along the Cote d'Ivoire-Ghana-Togo-Benin- Nigeria margin. There was extension along the Benue Trough up until sea floor spreading began, However, this part of the triple junction then became a failed arm.
Anaconda, June 18, 2012, wrote:Look at the schematic you so kindly provided:
Notice the sharp reliefs or drops into the faults where the horst & graben morphology is quite pronounced. It is not a "monolithic crust", rather, it is a segmented and fractured crust with many structural weakness which act as conduits for salt and oil brine slurry to vertically migrate up & out through the faults from deep within the crust.
But in the immediate proceeding paragraph, you, seasmith, make a claim that even the authors of the cited information don't claim:
In the Utah basin, the authors suggest multiple evaporation cycles based on the the nature and source of the intervening sediment layers. There was apparently plenty of of time for the various strata to form and lithify.
jone dae wrote:Hi, I'm new to this forum, but have enjoyed reading over your dialogs. Most interesting were those who argued for an abiotic origin of petroleum, or oil, and acknowledged the petroleum rains that were historically noted, as were hydrocarbon rains as well. But, some of them then went on to assert a 'deep' geological origin for oil, and I would like to see more studies that have found these deep geological sources. Also, the work of Alfred De Grazia is relevant here; some excerpts: [...]
starbiter, February 15, 2010, wrote:Have the folks on this thread considered oil from comets in the upper regions of the Earth's crust. Especially Oil Shale, and the massive pools of oil under the sand in the Middle East. Also the oil in Bituminous Coal.
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/deepi ... 90705.html
The link above has Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and carbonates in the coma of Temple 1
I'm not opposed to deep earth production of oil. Just open to comet oil.
nick c, February 16, 2010, wrote:I am with you there. The two are not mutually exclusive, but are actually complementary. Whatever processes produce hydrocarbons in the deep Earth would no doubt be in action on other worlds:starbiter wrote:I'm not opposed to deep earth production of oil. Just open to comet oil.The abiogenic hypothesis argues that petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. The presence of methane on Saturn's moon Titan is cited as evidence supporting the formation of hydrocarbons without biology.
Saturn's Methane Moon:
http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/2070/ ... thane-moon
If one accepts some form of planetary catastrophism then the possible extraterrestrial origin of at least some petroleum deposits could be expected.
Anaconda, February 23, 2010, wrote:Hi nick c:starbiter wrote:
I'm not opposed to deep earth production of oil. Just open to comet oil.nick c wrote:
I am with you there. The two are not mutually exclusive, but are actually complementary. Whatever processes produce hydrocarbons in the deep Earth would no doubt be in action on other worlds:
(...)nick c wrote:
If one accepts some form of planetary catastrophism then the possible extraterrestrial origin of at least some petroleum deposits could be expected.
It is without dispute that hydrocarbons from meteorites have been found on Earth. The question becomes how much of the hydrocarbons on Earth are from meteorites? Well, that would depend on how many meteorites with hydrocarbons fell to Earth (not all meteorites have hydrocarbons embedded in them) and how concentrated the meteorite showers fell and so forth. There are a lot of unknowns which prevent a definite answer. But I would suggest that it is a lessor than a greater amount. This discussion has primarily focussed on ultra-deep oil in large reservoirs. Ultra-deep oil concentrated in large reservoirs is less likely to be from meteorites.starbiter wrote:
Have the folks on this thread considered oil from comets in the upper regions of the Earth's crust. Especially Oil Shale, and the massive pools of oil under the sand in the Middle East. Also the oil in Bituminous Coal.
It is not likely that the "massive pools of oil under the sand in the Middle East" is the result of hydrocarbon emplacement by meteorites.
Let's look at the Ghawar oil field, the largest oil field in the world in Saudi Arabia:
Under the Ghawar oil field there is an active fracture network in the crystalline basement much as has been discussed previously for other oil fields of the world and the oil rises up from this fracture network and is lodged in sedimentary trapping structures:Ghawar is a large north-trending anticlinal structure, some 250 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide. It is a drape fold over a basement horst, which grew initially during the Carboniferous Hercynian deformation and was reactivated episodically, particularly during the Late Cretaceous. In detail, the deep structure consists of several en echelon horst blocks that probably formed in response to right-lateral transpression. The bounding faults have throws exceeding 3000 feet at the Silurian level but terminate within the Triassic section.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.net/docum ... /index.htm
What is interesting about the, above, passage is that while Ghawar is described as "over a basement horst...and was reactivated episodically...[and] the deep structure consists of several en echelon horst blocks...", the, above, passage makes no link between this active basement structure and the ultimate source of the oil (perhaps, the conventional view blinds the author to this connection).
Others, however, have made this connection explicit:These oil field structures are mostly produced by extensional block faulting in the crystalline Precambrian basement along the predominantly N-S Arabian Trend which constitutes the 'old grain' of Arabia. This type of basement horst, which has been periodically reactivated, underlies the world's largest oil field, Ghawar, and other major oil fields, such as Khurais, Mazalij and Abu Jifan. The basement horst beneath Ghawar Anticline has been suggested by Aramco (1959), from a positive Bouguer gravity anomaly which practically mirrors the field, and more recently, in greater detail, by Barnes (1987).All Saudi Arabian offshore oil fields, and some near coastal fields, such as Abu Hadriya, Abqaiq and Dammam, are also produced by basement faulting which has cut the saliferous, Upper Precambrian Hormuz Series, triggering deep-seated salt diapirism.
(See, Basement tectonics of Saudi Arabia as related to oil field structures, by H. Stewart Edgell:)
http://pagesperso-orange.fr/brcgranier/ ... l_1992.htm
It might also be intellectually fruitful to take a look at Iraq and its tectonic setting:Iraq is part of the Zagros and Arabian sedimentary provinces, according to St. John et al. (1984) (Figure 1). The former is a folded belt, related to A-subduction; and the Arabian province is a foredeep, in which the ramp has buried grabens, but with little blockfaulting (St. John et al., 1984). Fields are present in both provinces (Figures 2, 3, and 4). Konert et al. (2001) consider the foredeep in front of the Zagros (Figures 5 and 6) as a part of a very widespread stable platform. Versfelt (2001) shows the Zagros ãForeland Basinä to flank the the Zagros mountain front from the northeast-trending Khleissia high in the north to Hormuz in the south (Figure 6). The Zagros sedimentary province includes the Kirkuk (Sirwan) embayment, Lurestan, Dezful Embayment (Khuzestan), and Fars, the last three being predominantly in Iran. The embayments are the most prolific oil-producing areas. The fields, generally spectacular anticlines, trend northwest, except north of Mosul, where the folded belt becomes more easterly (Figure 7). Outside the Zagros belt are north-trending fields (e.g., Rumaila) and northwest-trending fields (e.g., East Baghdad). The fields in Southern Iraq trending north seemingly are related to fields in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia with similar orientation, which parallels extensional fault trends. Maps of fields, cross-sections, and generalized stratigraphic columns/diagrams are shown in Figures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... /index.htm
This paper provides a series of maps and schematics that lay out the geologic structure of Iraq: After study it is evident that the oil fields are found in close association with geologic structures and is likely not evidence of build-ups of meteorite hydrocarbons which would likely not be so closely associated with internal geologic structures.
Figure 5. from the paper is a good schematic for outlining the geologic structure of Iraq:
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/05.htm
So, while definite answers regarding the amount of meteorite hydrocarbons is impossible, the best evidence suggests that most hydrocarbons in the Earth's crust are the result of internal Earth dynamics and not the result of meteorite bombardment.
Anaconda, March 29, 2010, wrote:Hi starbiter:Starbiter asked:
What is your problem with comet oil?
I have no problems with comet oil, on the contrary, I was the one who brought up hydrocarbons found in meteorites, in the first place.
And I already responded to one of your comments, explaining that comet oil would be possible, but that the oil deposits in the Middle East are not consistent with comet oil because the deposits are too large & concentrated (19 cubic miles of oil pumped from Ghawar so far) and there are fracture zones in the basement (bedrock) directly under the Ghawar oil field in Saudi Arabia which provide scientific evidence for where the oil emanates from, as there are fracture zones in the basement under the other Middle Eastern oil fields...
Anaconda, March 26, 2010, wrote:Hi starbiter:
In regards to the issues raised by Velikovsky in his book, let me say, I don't follow Velikovsky word for word and as I understand it, neither do the leaders of Electric Universe. Velikovsky is a jumping off point and his work is valuble for starting the discussion and has stood the test of time for being a pioneering voice.
My purpose here is not to discredit Velikovsky, rather, it's to demonstrate hydrocarbons are abiotic, and as the succeeding comments have shown, there is an 'electric' connection between hydrocarbons deep in the Earth and electromagnetic processes, indeed, it's my opinion that Abiotic Oil is formed through an electro-thermo-molecular bonding or chemical reaction process.
jone dae wrote:But, some of them then went on to assert a 'deep' geological origin for oil, and I would like to see more studies that have found these deep geological sources.
During the Cretaceous, 139-65 million years ago, shallow seas covered much of the southern United States. These tropical waters were productive–giving rise to tiny marine plankton with carbonate skeletons which overtime accumulated into massive chalk formations. The chalk, both alkaline and porous...
Hello Seasmith: If You look at the top of the page You'll notice that the Thunderbolts Forum is for the discussion of Electric Universe and Plasma Cosmology. Because Earth is under discussion Plasma Cosmology is not in play. -starbiter
Electric Universe is based on catastrophism. Period! Because You're not comfortable with catastrophism doesn't change things. -starbitter
Below is what is to be discussed on this board.
Electric Universe - Planetary Science
Historic planetary instability and catastrophe. Evidence for electrical scarring on planets and moons. Electrical events in today's solar system. Electric Earth.
by starbiter » Thu Jun 28, 2012 6:05 pm
Hello Seasmith: Please see Board Index on the upper left of this page. Then Electric Universe-Planetary Science. The statement could not be more clear.
seasmith wrote:by starbiter » Thu Jun 28, 2012 6:05 pm
Hello Seasmith: Please see Board Index on the upper left of this page. Then Electric Universe-Planetary Science. The statement could not be more clear.
Yup,we are reading the same criteria:
Is the Largest Petroleum Trap of the World in NW Turkey: Korudag Anticlinorium in the South Thrace Basin?*
Samil Sen and Selin Yillar
Search and Discovery Article #70058 (2008)
Posted December 9, 2008
*Adapted from poster presentation at AAPG Annual Convention, San Antonio, TX, April 20-23, 2008.
Geology Department, Istanbul Univeristy, Istanbul, Turkey (email@example.com)
The oil and gas-bearing Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) contains Upper Cretaceous to present sediments, reaching a maximum thickness of over 9000 m (Figures 1, 2, and 3). The Korudag Anticlinorium in the SW Thrace Basin was defined in the Korudag region; however, its extensions are not studied as yet. Our studies, based on geological, structural geological and seismic interpretation (Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7), suggest that the anticlinorium is approximately 300 km long and 40 km wide and extends between the Aegean Sea in the west and the area of the Sea of Marmara to the east. The Korudağ Anticlinorium has asymmetrical geometry represented by several folds along the south flank and one fold on the north flank. The anticlinorium was formed by effects of the Neotethyan subduction-accretion complex during late Early Miocene time. In addition, it was deformed to its present day structure by the Oldest Splay of the North Anatolian Fault and the Northern Branch of the North Anatolian Fault.
Presently the Ghawar Anticline located in Saudi Arabia, which is 280 km long and 30 km wide, is considered to be the largest petroleum trap in the world. The Ghawar Anticline is also a unified asymmetrical structure, which is steeper on the western flank and becomes more complex at depth where it comprises several en echelon horst blocks. It also comprises reverse faults and a minor component of right-lateral strike-slip. Therefore, the dimensions of the Korudag Anticlinorium are larger than that of Ghawar Anticline.
According to organic geochemical, oil and gas to source rock correlation and basin modeling studies (e.g., Figure 8), three levels of the basin sediments have oil and gas generation potential, and oil and gas have been generated. The basin also has many potential reservoirs. Although gas and oil are being produced from the Korudağ Anticlinorium and its sub-parallel anticlines, it has not yet been tested and explored comprehensively.Figure 1. Simplified regional geology of NW Turkey and location map of the Korudag Anticlinorium, oil and gas fields, dry wells and seismic lines. Legend: 1) Istranca Massive, 2) Istanbul Paleozoic sediments, 3) Paleotethys remnants, 4) Upper Cretaceous arc volcanics, 5) Neotethys subduction-accretionary complex, 6) Thrace Basin sediments.
Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic succession of the southern Thrace Basin.
Figure 3. Geological map of SW Thrace Basin (modified from Saner, 1985; Onal, 1986; Siyako et al., 1989; Sumengen and Terlemez, 1991; MTA, 2002).
Figure 4. Block diagram of SW Korudag Mountain and environs.
Figure 5. Time-migrated seismic sections along lines 1-8.
Figure 6. Cross-section along Isiklardag (Ganos) Mountain (see geological map of SW Thrace Basin for location; modified from Okay et al., 2004).
Figure 7. Satellite image and block diagram of the Korudag Anticlinorium.
Figure 8. Burial history profiles and interpreted oil and gas maturation/expulsion (Huvaz et al., 2005, 2007).
Formation of the Korudag Anticlinorium
The Korudag Anticlinorium formed during the Early Miocene, as folded pre-Lower Miocene sediments are seen to be unconformably overlain by unfolded Middle Miocene sediments. The tectonic stresses controlling the formation of the Korudag Anticlinorium were created by the closure of the Neotethys Ocean during late Early Miocene. However, the present Korudag Anticlinorium was shaped by the Oldest Splay of the NAF (late Middle Miocene) and effects of the NAF-N (not earlier than 200 Ka).
Petroleum Geology of the Korudag Anticlinorium
The source rocks in the south Trace Basin are represented by a) the Karaagac or Hamitabat Formation, b) the Gazikoy or Ceylan Formation, c) the Mezardere Formation.
The reservoir rocks in the south Thrace Basin are represented by a) the Karaagac Formation, b) the Ficitepe Formation, c) the Sogucak Formation, d) the Gazikoy Formation, e) the Kesan Formation, f) the Osmancik Formation, and g) the Danisment Formation.
Production of the North Marmara, Degirmenkoy, Cayirdere, Seymen, Karacali, Yulafli, Tekirdag, Sevindik and Vakiflar fields should be associated with the Korudag Anticlinorium and its sub-parallel anticlines. Therefore, exploration should be tried in extensions of the Anticlinorium, such as offshore Tekirdag, including targeting the Hamitabat Formation with deeper wells. Despite the 19 unsuccessful exploration wells, potential reservoirs of the Sogucak, Ficitepe and Karaagac formations in the Korudag Anticlinorium should be tested in the SW Thrace and NW Aegean Sea.
Presently, the Ghawar Anticline located in Saudi Arabia, which is 280 km long and 30 km wide and harbors 60 billion barrels of oil and much gas, is considered to be the largest unified petroleum trap in the world (Xian, et al., 2003; Afifi, 2005; Durham, 2005; Saner et al., 2005; Dasgupta, 2005). However, Korudag Anticlinorium, at nearly 300 km long and 40 km wide, is larger than the Ghawar Anticline. Although giant structures are not always giant petroleum traps, such as the Destin Dome in the Gulf of Mexico, the Korudag Anticlinorium has not been tested and explored extensively.
This work was supported by the Research Fund of Istanbul University (Project number 1773/21122001) and the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). We thank I. Erdal Kerey (Beykent University), Sener Usumezsoy and Esref Yalcinkaya (Istanbul University), Salih Saner (Schlumberger Oilfield Services, Saudi Arabia), Gilbert Kelling (Keele University), Aynur Buyukutku (Ankara University), Mete Gurel, Zihni Aksoy, Hasan Emiroglu and Attila Ozatar (Turkish Petroleum Company) and Selami Incedalci (Petroleum Affairs of Turkey) for helpful and constructive comments. We also would like to thank Gretchen M. Gillis, Gary L. Prost, Patrick M. Shannon, Ronald A. Nelson, and Laird B. Thompson for their helpful comments and suggestions that greatly improved our manuscript
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