As was noted in a past Picture of the Day, galactic rotation is considered anomalous by conventional astronomers, unless CDM is added to a galaxy’s gravitational mass.
It has been suggested that the missing mass can be accounted for by factoring in the mass of the photon field.
Three, all mainstream theories have ignored the charge field completely. They have tried to solve this problem with gravity alone, or gravity plus relativity, or gravity plus unassigned functions. They have not seen that Newton's equation must include the charge field. Nor have they seen that if Newton's equation includes the charge field, it must cause both subtle and unsubtle variations in the field mechanics.
M = mass lying within stellar orbit
That proves my point, since that means we are talking about the galactic core here. Since the core is not a discrete object in a galaxy, all the mass inside the radius can be called the core. M is the central mass, not the orbiting mass.
Dark energy is mostly charge. It is charge photons. This charge is also what is causing drag in the inner parts of the galaxy, creating a flat velocity line.
If standard model totals are correct, and 95% of the total mass is unaccounted for, then it would appear that photons outweigh everything else by about 19 to 1. After doing the math above, that is not hard to believe at all. In fact, the math just above generates the number 19. That is why the mainstream is getting a figure of 95%: 95% is the same as 19 to 1. Current physicists have the right number but the wrong explanation. It is the charge field that outweighs baryonic matter by 19 to 1, not dark matter.
I have shown that mass and charge are dimensionally the same (and always have been, in mainstream equations), if charge is time dependent, mass must be also.
v = √[(GM0/r) – (Gmr/r)]
This second mass is defined as the mass at radius r, rather than the mass inside radius r. This solves the problem of previous maths, which did not include both variables. This second term represents the density of the charge field at a given radius and allows us subtract it out as a sort of drag.
Nonetheless, this new equation will help us fine tune all the velocities in all orbits. It will also force us to recognize the field presence of the photon, not only as charge but as resistance. This is the correct equation, and always has been. Historical and current equations are only attempts to derive this full unified field equation.
Conclusion: we do not have to propose any modification to Newton or Einstein to solve the galactic rotation problem. Nor do we need dark matter. We simply have to recognize the charge field, which already resides inside Newton's equation. Once we do this, the problem evaporates.