Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

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Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:02 am

Junglelord
Posted: Fri Jan 25, 2008 3:28 pm Post subject: Nonlinear Coherent Structures in Physics and Biology/Soliton Reply with quote
My investigations into longitudinal energy and vortex energy and the EU always brings me here to Soliton Science.

Sadly, the deaths were announced recently of the two of the pioneers and champions of nonlinear science: Martin Kruskal (Dec 26, 2006), and Alwyn Scott (Jan 11, 2007).

Kruskal was famous for many things, but those in the nonlinear community will remember him best as the modern discoverer of the soliton, along with Norman Zabusky. Their pioneering paper (PRL 15, 240, 1965) and other later works opened up the whole area of integrable systems.

Scott, together with Chu and McLaughlin, wrote the first review on soliton theory (Proc. IEEE, 61, 1443, 1973), which provided many researchers with their first introduction to the field. He also alerted the modern world to the then forgotten first observation of the solitary wave by John Scott Russell in 1834. Scott and McLauglin also pioneered the use of perturbation theory in treating near-integrable models (PRA 18, 1652, 1978). More recently Scott championed the idea of the importance of soliton-like localized processes on biological macromolecules, in particular the Davydon soliton. Throughout his life Scott published not just numerous scientific papers, but many books on nonlinear waves, neurophysics, and conciousness studies. Most recently he undertook the mammoth task of editing the Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science. He was working on the final pages of a history of Nonlinear Science when he died, The Nonlinear Universe.

Throughout his life Russell remained convinced that his solitary wave (the "Wave of Translation'') was of fundamental importance, but ninteenth and early twentieth century scientists thought otherwise. It was not until the mid 1960's when applied scientists began to use modern digital computers to study nonlinear wave propagation that the soundness of Russell's early ideas began to be appreciated. He viewed the solitary wave as a self-sufficient dynamic entity, a "thing" displaying many properties of a particle. From the modern perspective it is used as a constructive element to formulate the complex dynamical behaviour of wave systems throughout science: from hydrodynamics to nonlinear optics, from plasmas to shock waves, from tornados to the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, from the elementary particles of matter to the elementary particles of thought.

http://www.ma.hw.ac.uk/solitons/

Center for Nonlinear Studies
http://cnls.lanl.gov/External/
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:03 am

Junglelord
Posted: Fri Jan 25, 2008 5:40 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
Study of Soliton Science leads to a new model of nerve conduction.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/28/9790

this is due to the effects of anesthetics which cannot be explained with the current widely accepted Hodgkin-Huxley model which proposes that signals travel as action potentials: voltage-gated ion channels in the membrane open and allow ions to rush into the cell, thereby leading to the opening of other nearby ion channels and thus propagating the signal in an essentially electrical manner.

The model starts with the observation that cell membranes always have a freezing point (the temperature below which the consistency changes from fluid to gel-like) only slightly below the organism's body temperature, and this allows for the propagation of solitons. It has been known for several decades that an action potential traveling along a neuron results in a slight increase in temperature followed by a decrease in temperature. The decrease is not explained by the Hodgkin-Huxley model (electrical charges traveling through a resistor always produce heat), but traveling solitons do not lose energy in this way and the observed temperature profile is consistent with the Soliton model. Further, it has been observed that a signal traveling along a neuron results in a slight local thickening of the membrane and a force acting outwards; this effect is not explained by the Hodgkin-Huxley model but is clearly consistent with the Soliton model.

It is undeniable that an electrical signal can be observed when an action potential propagates along a neuron. The Soliton model explains this as follows: the traveling soliton locally changes density and thickness of the membrane, and since the membrane contains many charged and polar substances, this will result in an electrical effect, akin to piezoelectricity.

some good links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soliton_model
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:03 am

Junglelord
Posted: Fri Jan 25, 2008 5:43 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
Vortices and solitons in finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates

Quote:

In recent years there has been a great deal of attention paid to the properties of ultracold gases. This interest has been prompted by experiments that, by using a combination of magnetic fields and lasers, have been able to confine and cool dilute gases down to temperatures billionths of a degree above absolute zero. At these temperatures strange situations can arise that are unfamilar to us in our everyday lives. For example, if the temperature is low enough the atoms can undergo a phenomenon called Bose-Einstein condensation, where all of the atoms tend to move together. This leads to some rather startling and fascinating behaviour, such as the ability of the gas to flow without resistance. This property, which is similar to the flow of an electric current through a superconductor, is known as superfluidity. A nice feature of ultracold atoms is that they can be easily controlled and imaged directly, and are relatively simple to treat theoretically, so are very good systems in which to study superfluid behaviour. The proposed research will theoretically study the properties of these superfluid ultracold gases. Of particular interest are vortices, which are a familiar feature in fluids where they sometimes appear as whirlpools or tornados. They appear in superfluids when they are rotated or forced to flow past an obstacle too quickly. The vortices can then interact with atoms that are not part of the superfluid, creating a frictional force and therefore a resistance to the flow. So, the vortices are an important component in the breakdown of superfluidity, and our research will be mainly concerned with studying these interactions. A strong motivation for research into this problem is that similar behaviour is found in other systems, such as liquid helium or inside neutron stars, but isn't fully understood theoretically. So by studying this system and comparing to experiments we expect that this will provide valuable insights into these other systems


http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/ViewGrant.aspx?G ... /D040892/1
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:04 am

Junglelord
Posted: Fri Jan 25, 2008 9:53 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
These large BEC can become a possible Soliton Star in some models. Not that I support that end of the extreme but it is an interesting idea because it does not need gravity.

Quote:
As Friedberg and Lee continued to explore their theoretical construct, they came across another surprise: there didn't seem to be any obvious limit on how many quarks could be trapped inside a high-energy space bubble, as long as the bubble was big enough. The two physicists, working with Yang Pang of Brookhaven National Laboratory, decided to push their strange new solitons to the limit. "We wanted to see how big we could make these things," says Friedberg with a grin. The answer, when it was published, shocked physicists. Friedberg, Lee, and Pang found that their odd soliton could be as large as several light-years across, or the size and mass of a million billion suns. "We never got them quite as big as a galaxy," Friedberg says with a shrug.

Strangest of all was that the three scientists had constructed this bizarre theoretical entity without relying on the one phenomenon that holds together all other celestial objects: gravity. In fact, according to their calculations, the quarks in the space bubble wouldn't exert enough of a pull on one another to hold together. But their supermassive "soliton star" didn't need gravity to keep its shape; the quarks could be held together solely by the compression of the higher-energy space bubble.


http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m ... 79472/pg_5


Quote:
The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars.^Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin.^It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole.^The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.^16

http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/pro ... id=5995874


Quote:
The evolution of a soliton star filled with fermmions is studies in the framework of general relativity. Such a system can be described by the surface tension $\sigma$, the bag constant $B$, and the fermion number density $\rho_{0}$. Usually one of these parameters prevails in the system and thus affects the spacetime inside the soliton. Whether it is described by Friedman or de Sitter metric depends on the prevailing parameter. The whole spacetime is divided by the surface of the soliton in to the false vacuum region inside the soliton and the true vacuum region outside, the latter being described by the Schwarzschild line element. The aim of this paper is to study the equations of motion of the domain wall in two cases. In the first case the de Sitter metric describes the interior in the first case, and in the second case it is replaced by the Friedman metric. In both of them the Schwarzschild metric is outside the soliton. From the analysis of obtained equations one can draw conclusions concerning further evolution of a soliton star.


http://library.wolfram.com/infocenter/Articles/1213/p
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:04 am

Junglelord
Posted: Sat Feb 09, 2008 11:30 am Post subject: Reply with quote
Falaco Soliton, a video I had forgot about that StefanR had posted in another thread but realized I had to put it here. You really must watch this. Cool
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PyjwZ39EDmw

Toroid Soliton Smoke Ring
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4aMX1DXfpw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B88DyWruqlo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LlbiakM7o4
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:05 am

StefanR
Posted: Sat Feb 09, 2008 11:42 am Post subject: Reply with quote
vortex ani-vortex motion shown in einstein-bose condensate. Meyl's view of the electron-positron pair confirmed?

Soliton Wave in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=190joBIXX28&NR=1
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:06 am

Junglelord
Posted: Sat Feb 23, 2008 12:12 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
Number 851 #1, December 21 , 2007 by Phil Schewe
A Persisten Flow of Bose-Condensed Atoms in a Toroidal Trap

The first time this has been achieved, offers physicists a better chance to study the kinship between Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and superfluids. Both involve the establishment of an ensemble in which many atoms join together in a single quantum entity. But they’re not quite the same thing. In a bath of liquid helium at low temperatures, for example, nearly 100% of the atoms are in a superfluid state but only about 10% are in a BEC state (in a BEC millions of atoms have become, in a sense, a single atom). But physicists generally believe that most or all of a BEC is superfluid. Scientists have been able to stir up quantized vortices in BEC samples, one indication that BECs are superfluid. But until now researchers had not been able to get BECs to move around a track in a persistent flow, another sign of superfluidity.

The new experiment, performed by Nobel laureate William Philips and his colleagues at NIST-Gaithersburg and the Joint Quantum Institute of NIST and the University of Maryland, chilled sodium atoms in a toroidal trap, set them into motion with laser light, and observed a flow for as long as 10 seconds, when the condensate started to come undone because the delicate magnetic and optical trapping parameters tuned to contain the atoms had drifted from their ideal settings. One of the scientists on the project, Kristian Helmerson (kristian@nist.gov), says that neutral atoms flowing in a toroidal vessel could be fashioned into the atom analog of a superconducting quantum interference device (or a SQUID, for short, which is used as a sensitive detector of magnetism); this BEC device, sensing not magnetism but slight changes in direction, could serve as a sensitive gyroscope, possibly for navigation purposes (Ryu et al., Physical Review Letters, upcoming article)
http://www.aip.org/pnu/2008/split/851-1.html
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:06 am

Junglelord
Posted: Wed Feb 27, 2008 1:46 am Post subject: Reply with quote
Technically, a soliton is "a permanent localized disturbance in a non-linear wave". To put it in terms that may be easier to understand, solitons are waves that act like particles. It is interesting that such things exist at all. People once doubted their existence. However, the mathematical theory of solitons is now a well developed "science". Solitons have practical applications and they are also interesting subjects of theoretical study.
Four interesting (and surprising things) about solitons are:

Integrability:
Before the discovery of solitons, mathematicians and people who used math were under the impression that we could not solve nonlinear partial differential equations...not exactly anyway. However, solitons led us to recognize that through a combination of such diverse subjects as quantum physics and algebraic geometry, we can actually solve some nonlinear equations exactly, which gives us a tremendous "window" into what is possible in nonlinearity.

Nonlinear Superposition:
In linear equations there is a simple way to make new solutions from known ones, just multiply them by scalars and add! This is known as superposition. Before the discovery of solitons, there was no analogue of this construction for nonlinear equations, but the way that a 2-soliton solution can be viewed as a combination (though not a simple linear combination) of two 1-soliton solutions leads to a recognition that (at least for soliton equations) that there is a nonlinear superposition principle as well. (This is now understood algebraically in terms of the symmetries known as Darboux-Backlund transformations and geometrically in terms of the structure of the Sato Grassmannian.)

Particle-like behavior:
The particle like behavior of solitons (that they are localized and preserved under collisions) leads to a large number of applications for solitons. On the one hand, we hope to be able to use solitons to better understand real particles. This is already true to some extent: there are soliton models of nuclei and the technique known as bosonization allows us to view particles like electrons and positrons as being solitons in appropriate situations. However, there is so far no general theory in which particles are described as solitons. Still, there are macroscopic phenomena, such as internal waves on the ocean, spontaneous transparency, and the behavior of light in fiber optic cable just to name a few, which are know understood in terms of solitons.

Algebraic-Geometry:
Perhaps the most surprising thing about solitons is the way they interface the subjects of differential equations and algebraic geometry. This has been used to the benefit of each subject. For example, there are large classes of solutions to soliton equations that we know only because they are provided by classical results in algebraic geometry. (In particular, solutions can be written in terms of the theta function of complex projective algebraic curves.) In the other direction, the KP hierarchy of soliton equations provides the only known method for determining whether a given abelian variety is a jacobian variety (a problem known as the Schottky problem in algebraic geometry). Most interesting to me is the way that algebraic varieties play a role for solitons analogous to a vector space in the case of linear equations. In particular, just as the linear combinations of a set of known solutions form a vector space, the "nonlinear superpositions" of solutions to the KP hierarchy form an infinite dimensional grassmannian manifold!
http://math.cofc.edu/kasman/SOLITONPICS/index.html
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:07 am

Junglelord
Posted: Wed Feb 27, 2008 1:51 am Post subject: Reply with quote
The Spark-associated Soliton Model for Pulsar Radio Emission for EU submission.
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/317220
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:08 am

****** Last post of the recovered thread ******
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Solitons found in magnetopause

Unread postby StefanR » Tue Mar 18, 2008 4:22 am

Solitons found in the magnetopause
Image
Soliton in water original 1834 phenomenon reproduced on the Scott Russell Aqueduct over the Union Canal near Heriot-Watt University (UK), 12 July 1995.

07 Mar 2008
First observed in the waters of a Scottish canal in 1834, solitary waves or solitons, have nowadays applications across various fields of physics, including optical fibres to enable ultra-fast internet. However, fundamental questions on this phenomenon remain open. For the first time, spontaneous formation of solitons in space, at the border of the Earth's magnetosphere called magnetopause, is reported and explained in a recent article published in Physical Review Letters. The combined observations made by the four satellites of the Cluster mission were found in good agreement with numerical simulations, thus confirming earlier theoretical predictions of their existence.
Image
Soliton in space observed by three spacecraft Salsa (red), Rumba (green), Tango (blue) of the Cluster mission on 30 March 2002 while crossing the Earth's magnetopause.

Similar soliton-like structures have been found in the field of plasma physics including inside experimental nuclear fusion reactors using tokamaks to magnetically contain plasma. Probing such a phenomenon in these experimental devices is difficult as the probe itself often perturbs the medium being investigated. Space is a better environment than a fusion reactor to study solitons because the probe (satellite) can easily penetrate all regions of interest without experiencing any damage.

On 30 March 2002, the four satellites of the Cluster mission were flying in formation across the magnetopause at ~ 50 000 km distance from Earth. De Keyser et al. (2005) and Silin et al. (2005) reported the presence of electric field turbulence within the magnetopause during this crossing, consisting of a special type of waves called lower-hybrid waves. Making use of the simultaneous electric field measurements by three Cluster satellites, Trines et al. (2007) reveal the presence of a solitary wave structure breaking away from this turbulent region (see arrows in Image 2).
Image
Comparison between the observed (left panel) and simulated (right panel) plasma and field profiles of Rumba (Cluster-1) crossing the reconnection electron jet close to a reconnection site.

"From the known separation of the spacecraft and the order in which they crossed the magnetopause, we infer that this structure moves down into the magnetosphere at a speed of roughly 8-9 kms-1 and has a size of 6-7 kilometres, estimations only possible with multiple spacecraft," says Raoul Trines lead author of this result published 16 November 2007 in Physical Review Letters. Dr. Trines is a scientist at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK).

"Cluster is the first mission in space able to compare natural phenomena such as solitons with theoretic models in much more detail than any other mission thanks to its unique capability of differentiating spatial from temporal variations. This result is one of the scientific highlights of the mission," comments Philippe Escoubet, Cluster and Double Star scientist of the European Space Agency.

http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object ... ctid=42432
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Simulation of Soliton at Magnetopause Boundary

Unread postby StefanR » Wed Mar 19, 2008 4:55 pm

Simulation of Soliton at Magnetopause Boundary

Image

This movie shows a simulation of the electric field of an electrostatic zonal flow (red curve) at the Earth's magnetopause boundary (black curve: plasma density profile).

Upstream of the boundary, a stationary electrostatic wave, called a zonal flow, is excited by drift wave turbulence. Downstream, the drift waves are not in resonance with the zonal flow, so the zonal flow does not grow there. At the boundary itself, the action of the drift wave turbulence rips the zonal flow apart, causing individual zonal flow periods to move independently. This explains the origin of the solitary zonal flow structures observed by Cluster in regions of strong drift wave turbulence at the Earth's magnetopause boundary.


http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object ... ctid=42434
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Re: Recov:Nonlinear Coherent Structures Physics/Biology/Soliton

Unread postby junglelord » Mon May 05, 2008 6:37 pm

I can certainly claim a non linear moment when I conceived of the new format of the EU Forum based on Linear and Non Linear systems. I had a synesthesia moment and realized that the answer was right there in the TOE's themself, especially after I read the tower of babel thread and the APM thread issues.
:ugeek:

We must mirror the universe in the forum structure to achieve its function.
That would be order from chaos.
The universe is both linear and nonlinear, both systems are coherent.
Therefore to prevent order slipping into chaos we must organize the forum like the universe.

Now we have Linear Reductionism Force threads on every basic concept of the Standard Model. These threads will be used as vehicles of learning and destroying myth. You can link from Non Linear threads with quotes and tear apart all the individual linear threads you want with your reductionism forces, you are god here. Every single reduction principle can be explored and should be.
(besides, everyone plays with electrons, but beware, it can be shocking in a good or a bad way!)

Non Linear Wholistic threads of TOE's will be uninterrupted paradigms that weave new realities with these common threads. Therefore they need to be digested as such. In this way they represent the idea of a Bible and a concept of God.
(No one messes with God, you never win! TOEs are really a nonreligious scientific expression of the religious word God, my parents always told me never discuss religion....LOL, I think that whole lesson would be well learned here. TOE's are really the Holy Grail and would be the Bible of the Scientist who accepts it. You never question a mans religion, you just live and let live. Also you should read the Bible for yourself and never let anyone read it for you. Also Interruptions in these threads are like reading the Bible and having someone telling you to read the Koran. That is never going to work! We all know how hard it is to change a mans religion and why do you want to bother make him switch anyway? Just live and let live.)

Besides think about it, No one moves from a flat earth view to a round globe view in a linear fashion. That is a non liner moment. That happens for everyone in a individual time. Its a personal indivdual journey and the human condition is both linear and non linear but both can and must be coherent and not descend into chaos but must retain the order in its Structure and then the Function which will serve people much better.

Oh look what I found, Carver Mead says it well in his own way in his forward. Specialization is reductionism and is linear. We are almost forced by society to only think linear. We need these non linear moments to truly comphrend. Sadly we lack much of the nonlinear experience because we are told that there is nothing new to learn, that it must be this way, that prevents us from even thinking non linear. Also his intro and my experience in electronics is that I am just beginning to truly understand....much to think about. Please take the time to read his forward. I would like to thank StevenO for bringing Carver Mead to our attention.
http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0 ... T0#PPR9,M1


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