A ridge under the Atlantic Ocean was first inferred by Matthew Fontaine Maury in 1850. The ridge was discovered during the expedition of HMS Challenger in 1872. A team of scientists on board, led by Charles Wyville Thomson, discovered a large rise in the middle of the Atlantic while investigating the future location for a transatlantic telegraph cable. The existence of such a ridge was confirmed by sonar in 1925 and was found to extend around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean by the German Meteor expedition.
In the 1950s, mapping of the Earth’s ocean floors by Bruce Heezen, Maurice Ewing, Marie Tharp and others revealed the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to have a strange bathymetry of valleys and ridges, with its central valley being seismologically active and the epicentre of many earthquakes. Ewing and Heezen discovered the ridge to be part of a 40,000-km-long essentially continuous system of mid-ocean ridges on the floors of all the Earth’s oceans. The discovery of this worldwide ridge system led to the theory of seafloor spreading and general acceptance of Wegener's theory of continental drift and expansion as plate tectonics.
Notable features along the ridge
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge includes a deep rift valley which runs along the axis of the ridge along nearly its entire length. This rift marks the actual boundary between adjacent tectonic plates, where magma from the mantle reaches the seafloor, erupting as lava and producing new crustal material for the plates.
Near the equator, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is divided into the North Atlantic Ridge and the South Atlantic Ridge by the Romanche Trench, a narrow submarine trench with a maximum depth of 7,758 m (25,453 ft), one of the deepest locations of the Atlantic Ocean. This trench, however, is not regarded as the boundary between the North and South American Plates, nor the Eurasian and African Plates.
1New Exploration Ventures, ConocoPhillips, Stavanger, Norway. (Chris.C.Parry@conocophillips.com)
The Atlantic Mid Ocean Ridge can be traced from the Bouvet triple junction at latitude 54 degrees south, some 10,000 kilometers northwards via Iceland into the Norwegian Sea before joining with the Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean, via the Fram Strait.
Along the length of the divergent boundary of the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge, the spreading center is offset by regularly spaced transform boundaries. These can be traced shoreward as deep-seated continental fracture zones beneath the sediment cover.
Lister et al. (1986) described upper plate and lower plate passive margins, separated by a detachment fault, which give rise to asymmetric conjugate margins after final continental breakup. The upper plate is characterized by a narrow continental shelf, with relatively little sedimentary accommodation space. It is relatively unstructured and has experienced uplift related to underplating. While on the opposite side of the mid ocean ridge, the conjugate lower plate is characterized by a wide continental shelf, which has abundant sedimentary accommodation space. It is complexly structured and exhibits bowed up detachment faults. Transfer faults offset marginal features and can cause the upper/lower plate polarity to change along the strike of the margin.
The Fram Strait is a transform margin which was initiated in the Eocene as a result of the onset of spreading in the North Atlantic. The sliding of the North American Plate past the Eurasian Plate during the opening of the North Atlantic created an upthrust zone that formed due to space constraints associated with low-angle convergent strike slip or transform motion. The easiest direction for space relief for the squeezed sediments is vertical, and a zone of downward tapering wedges and upthrust margins is created.
The Atlantic Mid Ocean Ridge transform boundaries can be traced across the oceanic crust towards the coast line, forming basement structural highs. These are related to volcanic activity along strike of these “leaky” fracture zones in the oceanic crust. These structures set up the initial structural framework of the continental margin basins. Syn-rift and post-rift deepwater sedimentation onlap these basement highs and the influence of the transfer zones continues to propagate into younger strata by differential compaction. These differential compaction
Science 1 February 2008:
Vol. 319 no. 5863 pp. 604-607
Abiogenic Hydrocarbon Production at Lost City Hydrothermal Field
Marvin D. Lilley1,
Jeffery S. Seewald2,
Gretchen L. Früh-Green3,
Eric J. Olson1,
John E. Lupton4,
Sean P. Sylva2 and
Deborah S. Kelley1
1 School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.
3 Department of Earth Sciences, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich, Switzerland.
4 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)–Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Newport, OR 97365, USA.
Low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in natural hydrothermal fluids have been attributed to abiogenic production by Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions, although clear evidence for such a process has been elusive. Here, we present concentration, and stable and radiocarbon isotope, data from hydrocarbons dissolved in hydrogen-rich fluids venting at the ultramafic-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field. A distinct “inverse” trend in the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of C1 to C4 hydrocarbons is compatible with FTT genesis. Radiocarbon evidence rules out seawater bicarbonate as the carbon source for FTT reactions, suggesting that a mantle-derived inorganic carbon source is leached from the host rocks. Our findings illustrate that the abiotic synthesis of hydrocarbons in nature may occur in the presence of ultramafic rocks, water, and moderate amounts of heat.
Lost City, located 20 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is characterized by extreme conditions never before seen in the marine environment: venting of pH 9-11, >90°C, metal-poor fluids from carbonate edifices that tower 60-m above the seafloor. Investigation of this remarkable system has forever changed our views about where and how life can thrive and survive on and in the seafloor and provided new models for the evolution of life on this earth and possibly elsewhere [Kelley et al., 2005]. This system is the longest-lived of any known venting environment in the worlds’ oceans with activity ongoing for at least 120,000 years. Investigations of this site were funded by the National Science Foundation and by the NOAA Ocean Exploration program.
Within the Atlantis Massif, a >14,000 foot tall mountain on which Lost City rests, fluid rock reactions in the ultramafic rocks result in alkaline fluids with high concentrations of abiogenically produced hydrogen, methane, and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons. In concert, these dissolved gases support novel microbial communities. The oxygen-free, interior zones of the chimneys harbor biofilms of a single type of archaea called Lost City Methanoscarcinales that utilizes methane in its metabolism. Bacteria related to CH4- and S-oxidizers, are mostly found in the oxygenated, outer walls of chimneys where fluid chemistry is substantially different than the chimney interiors [Brazelton et al., 2006].
The highly-sculpted, high-surface area of the Lost City structures provides ample space for faunal habitats, and many recovered invertebrates were located within the porous channels and crevices of the carbonate. Surprisingly, while total biomass is low within the field, the field supports a species diversity that appears to be as high as any other known black smoker system on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading center.
The range and complexity of environments hosting peridotites and other ultramafic rocks within the worlds’ oceans is vast and it is unlikely that Lost City is unique. Perhaps the most far-reaching impact of the discovery Lost City-type is the realization that life itself may have originated within these dynamic environments in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately linked.
Organic geochemistry of fluids from 4 ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems of the Mid Atlantic Ridge
C. Konn*, J.L. Charlou, J.P. Donval, N.G. Holm, F. Dehairs, S. Bouillon
Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal sites are characterized by mantle outcrops. On the Mid-Atlantic ridge, the Eurasian and American plates are moving appart resulting in the oceanic crust to tear up and to let the mantle rocks outcrop. Circulation of seawater, along the faults, within the mantle alters the periodites via the serpentinisation process, which produces a large amount of H2. Notably, H2 is a great source of energy for further chemical reactions. Besides, a high CH4 concentration in the water column is associated with ultramafic hydrothermal activity. This methane has been suggested to be abiogenic and to be formed via a Fisher-Tropsh synthesis (3H2 + CO +CH4 + H2O). The isotope-ratio values support the later hypothesis. This has lead to the idea of abiogenic formation of larger organic compounds such as hydrocarbons or key molecules for the origin of life issue. Both thermodynamics and laboratory work support this idea, but field data had not been studied yet. During the EXOMAR and the SERPENTINE cruises conducted by IFREMER, France; hydrothermal fluids from the MAR have been collected at different hot vent sites (Rainbow, Lost City, Logachev, Ashadze). Innovative and efficient techniques have been developed, used and improved to concentrate, isolate and extract compounds from the fluids by SPE (Solid Phase Extraction)-GC-MS and SBSE (Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction)-TD (ThermalDesorption)-GC-MS analyses. Mainly hydrocarbons, but also oxygen- and nitrogen-compounds were clearly -identified by comparison of recorded mass spectra with library data. As for the analysis process, a particular attention is now paid to carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons as well as volatiles (C1-C8).
This work is carried out partly within the MoMARnet (Monitoring deep sea floor hydrothermal environments on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A Marie Curie Research Training network’) framework.
Bloomberg, January 27, 2010, wrote:...Papa Terra [oil field] is bigger and costlier than the Chevron-operated Frade field about 230 miles off the Brazilian coast. Frade began production in June. It cost about $3 billion and holds recoverable reserves estimated at 200 million to 300 million barrels of oil...
Reuters, June 23, 2009, wrote:Chevron Corp (CVX.N) announced on Tuesday a slightly earlier start of oil output at the Frade field, a $3 billion project off Brazil's coast expected to produce 90,000 barrels per day by 2011.
Crude oil from Frade, located some 230 miles (370 km) from Rio de Janeiro in 3,700 feet (1,128 meters) of water...
New Exploration Ventures, ConocoPhillips, Stavanger, Norway wrote:quote from abstract
...Along the length of the divergent boundary of the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge, the spreading center is offset by regularly spaced transform boundaries. These can be traced shoreward as deep-seated continental fracture zones beneath the sediment cover...
starbiter wrote:[Anaconda] If your not comfortable with the catastrophic model, why do You post HERE?
Anaconda, Oct 11, 2010, on this board, wrote:Let's be clear, if coal is abiotic (obviously, it's a controversial conclusion, inspite of the bituminous coal evidence and the heavy metal evidence), a large amount of energy would be needed to extrude the massive amounts of coal found spread-out over vast expanses near the surface all over the world.
And there is a substantial body of evidence to support a mechanism to introduce large amounts of energy into the Earth's crust & mantle:
I subscribe to Dr. Anthony L. Peratt's theory that a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora enveloped the Earth and most likely has enveloped the Earth many times in the Earth's past. [...]
Regardless of the exact age of the Earth (I agree no one knows), it does appear that abiotic coal formation epochs were repeated across the great expanse of Earth's history. These abiotic coal epochs were catastrophic in effect and extent. And, beyond the extruding of coal up to the surface, likely, there were many secondary electromagnetic effects and phenomena. It seems quite possible that coal balls are one of those effects.
Another, physical effect would be an increased volcanism at perhaps catastraphic activity levels.
At times in Earth's history, the surface was a very inhospitable place to be.
Wallace Thornhill wrote:Since then sceptical scholars have shown Velikovsky’s historical perspective of cataclysmic events to be wrong. However, his basic premise of planetary encounters has been confirmed and the details fleshed out to an extraordinary degree.
starbiter wrote:The dolomite is best explained as comet dust.
starbiter wrote:Electric Universe is based on catastrophism. Period!
starbiter wrote:This discussion on an upper board of the Electric Universe Forum should always consider a catastrophic scenario. If not, this discussion should be on new insights and mad ideas, IMHO.
starbiter wrote:But what's clear is that oil rained from above, day and night. It rained oil day after day. The rivers rain with oil. People climbed trees to escape the oil. The oil killed more people than all the other disasters, in some cases. This is basic EU.
Wallace Thornhill wrote:The ancient Chinese Soochow Astronomical Chart says "Venus was visible in full daylight and, while moving across the sky, rivaled the sun in brightness". The Hebrews wrote "The brilliant light of Venus blazes from one end of the cosmos to the other end." The Chaldeans described Venus as a "bright torch of heaven", a "diamond that illuminates like the sun", "A stupendous prodigy in the sky" that "fills the entire heaven.", and compared its light to that of the rising sun. At present the light of Venus is <1 millionth that of the sun. Universally, Venus was referred to by the ancients in the same terms as a comet: a bearded, hairy or smoking star.
Wallace Thornhill wrote:Descriptions of phenomena in the ancient skies should not be dismissed out of hand as poetry or metaphor-particularly if on the same page as a comet is mentioned, we read of falls of stones from the daylit sky or a shower of stars at night. These are related phenomena which we know from modern science might be expected to occur together. Of course by themselves such reports do not prove anything.
starbiter wrote:My work in geology disagrees with Dr Velikovsky's vision drastically.
starbiter wrote:As opposed to You Anaconda, he [Scarborough] was completely open to comet oil as proposed by Dr Velikovsky.
Anaconda, June 28, 2012, wrote:My response directly to the possibility of comet oil:Anaconda, March 29, 2010, wrote:Hi starbiter:Starbiter asked:
What is your problem with comet oil?
I have no problems with comet oil, on the contrary, I was the one who brought up hydrocarbons found in meteorites, in the first place.
And I already responded to one of your comments, explaining that comet oil would be possible, but that the oil deposits in the Middle East are not consistent with comet oil because the deposits are too large & concentrated (19 cubic miles of oil pumped from Ghawar so far) and there are fracture zones in the basement (bedrock) directly under the Ghawar oil field in Saudi Arabia which provide scientific evidence for where the oil emanates from, as there are fracture zones in the basement under the other Middle Eastern oil fields...
starbiter wrote:[Anaconda] Your comment seemed insincere.
starbiter wrote:How were dolomite and calcite produced on the planets that ejected the comets as You propose?
starbiter wrote:Why was NASA surprised to find carbonates in the coma of comets?
starbiter wrote:Electrical comets seem to have dolomite and limestone in their comas. They also have aromatic hydrocarbons. This seems like a clue to me. Are You just going to ignore this fact?
Anaconda, July 10, 2012, wrote:I also subscribe to the idea that comets, meteorites, and asteroids originated as a result of past planetary electromagnetic interaction, i.e., electric discharge machining (EDM) as evidenced by the scars on Mars, some here on Earth, and other planets and moons and, perhaps, stronger evidence, still, by recent empirical observation & measurement of the comets, themselves, where the evidence suggests the comets consist of material which could only form in a planetary body. The best evidence currently available is comets, meteorites, and asteroids were created as material was "blasted away" from the various spots on the planetary bodies and sent into space.
This conclusion may explain why there is dolomite dust in the comet tail and also explain the presence of hydrocarbons found within meteorites.
starbiter wrote:They [comets] also have aromatic hydrocarbons. This seems like a clue to me.
starbiter wrote:My big problem with oil oozing up from below through faults into the sediments where we find it is the timeline.
starbiter wrote:How long does it take for the oil to ooz into impermeable shale?
Eugene Coste p.110 wrote:The above table shows more than 50 different "sands" (by this term we mean any gas or oil rock, as in the parlence of a driller, whether it is a sandstone, a limestone, or any other rock) in which oil or gas fields have been found along the Appalachian belt, and we have no doubt that as a great many so called "stray sands" were left out of the table and, as the different "pay" or "pay streaks" of the same "sand" are only counted as one, that the real number of different sands which have been found containing gas or oil along this belt, from West Virginia to New York State, cannot be less, if any, than eighty...
Eugene Coste p.111 wrote:Let us take you along this belt in a rapid survey of what the drill really teaches us: -- in the oil region south-west of Pittsburgh the drill starts (where the upper measures are the thickest) in the Upper Barren Coal Measures, and inside of 3,500 feet to 4,000 feet passes through the 26 oil and gas "sands" of the lower Carboniferous, Subcarboniferous and Upper Devonian shown in the above table [available in the linked document]; but, here it will tap the illusive oil or gas in one of these sands, there in another, in the most indiscriminate fashion. Occasionally, it will tap them in the same field in two, four, six or even more of the "Sands" like at Macksburg. Which is going to be the producing sand? Will it be the shallow or Cow Run sands? or the Salt sand? or the Keener, Big Injun or Berea? or the deeper Gordon or 5th sand? It is quite evident that the oil and gas are wanderers, and that their home [origin] is not in any of these sands. We now go north-east of Pittsburg to the Middle and Northern oil fields [where, again, multiple "sands" in the same geologic column were found to have hydrocarbons]... We have then at last reached the Archaean Crystalline floor without finding this home and, on the top of it we record the highest pressure for the gas yet recorded... Now! what is the source?... Our negative proofs then become a most positive conclusive proof that the home [origin] of our wanderers [oil & gas] is below the Archaean in the fluid magma.
starbiter wrote:What is your timeline for the process?
starbiter wrote:How was impermeable oil shale rock produced?
starbiter wrote:What lithified it?
starbiter wrote:Is it metamorphic?
starbiter wrote:According to this link the whole formation went for a ride on the magic elevator.
starbiter wrote:Seems like comet oil to me.
starbiter wrote:The layers of the Green River formation are obviously from a slosh of underwater sediment that included 2 trillion barrels of oil, as described in legend and myth.
starbiter wrote:How long does it take for the oil to ooz into impermeable shale?
Eugene Coste wrote:In all the oil- and gas-fields or petroleum-deposits, the gaseous products are under a strong pressure which is not artesian or hydrostatic, which increases with depth, and which cannot be be anything else but a volcanic pressure. Oil, gas and bitumens are never indigenous to the strata in which they are found -- they are secondary products impregnating and cutting porous rocks of all ages, exactly as volcanic products alone can do. Oil and gas are stored products, in great abundance in certain localities, while neighboring localities often are entirely barren; and many of the strata among which they are found are impervious, that the source of these hydrocarbons must be the source below, which alone is abundant enough, and alone possesses sufficient energy, to force and accumulate such large quantities of these and associated products in so many spots through such impervious strata. The oil- and gas-fields are located along the faulted and fissured zones of the crust of the earth, parallel to the great orogenic and volcanic dislocations. -- Eugene Coste, geologist, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Eugene Coste wrote:Oil and gas were only supplied along some of the lines of structural weakness or along some of the fractured zones of the crust of the earth, and, therefore, the new fields are to be found only along these zones or belts... -- Eugene Coste, geologist, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Aardwolf wrote:Where does comet oil supposedly come from?
starbiter wrote:On the 29th of August, after NPA 19 in Albuquerque, there will be another geology tour.
Anaconda, February 10, 2012, wrote:Comparing & contrasting the White Tiger oil field off the coast of Vietnam in South East Asia with the Covenant oil field located in 2004 in the state of Utah in the United States. One oil field is offshore and the other is on land.
Both locations were originally considered poor prospects for the discovery of oil by conventional geologists.
This board has previously discussed the White Tiger oil field off the coast of Vietnam (March 26, 2011). In numerous discussions of Abiotic Oil Theory, the offshore oil fields of Vietnam are held-up as an example of oil production from the crystalline basement (bedrock), and, thus, with the conclusion that petroleum is abiotic:
The Search and Discovery scientific paper, Petroleum Geology of Cuu Long Basin - Offshore Vietnam* by Nguyen Du Hung and Hung Van Le (2004) provides a description & discussion of the White Tiger field:Hung & Van Le wrote:Partial Abstract:
The Cuu Long basin is a Tertiary rift basin on the southern shelf of Vietnam. It covers an area of approximately 25,000 km2 (250 x 100 km). The basin was formed during the rifting in Early Oligocene. Late Oligocene to Early Miocene inversion intensified the fracturing of granite basement and made it become an excellent reservoir.
In spite of some discoveries in the Oligocene-Miocene clastics and volcanic sections, fractured granite basement is still the main target of Cuu Long basin. Tectonic activities play a key role in creating and enhancing the fractures in the basement. Five major oil fields produce predominantly from the basement.
The following Schematic from the paper provides a visual of the geology:Figure 4. Two-dimensional model of the play concept for the Cuu Long basin.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/04.htm
The paper goes on to describe the fractured rift horst:Oil was stored in macro-fractures, micro-fractures, and vuggy pores. The matrix porosity of the magmatic body is negligible. Fractures inside the basement may originate from one or a combination of the following factors:
1) The cooling of the magmatic body
2) Tectonic activity
3) Hydrothermal processes
4) Weathering and exfoliation.
However, the tectonic activity and the hydrothermal processes are practically the main factors that control the porosity of the fracture systems. Recent studies (Cuong, T. X. 2001; Schmidt, J. et al., 2003) proved that the compression event that occurred during Late Oligocene reactivated the pre-existing faults/fractures and created effective porosity inside the granite basement. The compression probably resulted from the restraining band of a strike-slip motion along the E-W trending lineaments.
Take note of the geologic structure presented in the above linked schematic.
Now let's compare & contrast the White Tiger field's structure with the Covenant oil field discovered in 2004 in the state of Utah in an area which had been considered by most conventional geologists as a poor prospect for discovering oil:
Covenant Oil Field, Central Utah Thrust Belt: Possible Harbinger of Future Discoveries*, by Thomas C. Chidsey et. al. (2007):Chidsey et. al. wrote:Abstract
After over 50 years of exploration [apparently with little success] in the central Utah thrust belt, or “Hingeline,” the 2004 discovery of Covenant oil field proved that this region contains the right components (trap, reservoir, seal, source, and migration history) for large accumulations of oil. To date, 10 producing wells and one dry hole have been drilled from two surface pads. Covenant has produced over 2 million bbls of oil and no gas; the field averages 6400 BOPD.
The Covenant trap is an elongate, symmetric, northeast-trending anticline, with nearly 800 ft of structural closure and bounded on the east by a series of splay thrusts in a passive roof duplex. The eolian Jurassic Navajo Sandstone reservoir is effectively sealed by mudstone and evaporites in the overlying Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Arapien Shale. Oil analysis indicates a probable Mississippian source – oil derived and migrated from rocks within the Hingeline region...
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... 70chidsey/
The "Hingeline" is in reference to a lifted or raised ridge or thrust belt running in a northeast-trending direction in central Utah.
Okay, let's now specifically examine the geologic structure of the Covenant oil field as presented in the following schematics:Figure 9. Northwest-southeast structural cross section, Covenant field.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/09.htmFigure 27. Potential drilling targets: Schematic east-west structural cross section through Sevier Valley, Utah.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/27.htm
Take note of the geologic structure presented in the above linked schematics. Now, again, compare & contrast the above geologic structure with the geologic structure of Vietnam's offshore White Tiger oil field:
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/04.htm
The similarities are striking & notable with the internal faults within the overall structure pointed towards the top and center of the fault structure in both the White Tiger and Covenant oil fields. The difference is that the White Tiger oil field consists of fractures & faults running into the crystalline basement and the Covenant oil field consists of sedimentary layers pushed upwards via thrusting originating from below the sedimentary layers.
It is interesting to look at the seimic, earthquake history map of Utah:Utah, Seismicity Map, Seismicity of Utah 2000 - 2006
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/ ... micity.php
Also, interesting to look at is the physical relief map of Utah:Utah Physical Map - Utah Relief Map:
This Utah shaded relief map shows the major physical features of the state [Third map down on the Geology.com webpage].
After comparing the seismic and physical relief maps of Utah, note the congruence of the thrusting uplift and seismic activity. Again, it is striking and remarkable.
After reviewing seismic maps of various oil fields on tectonic faults, one will note the consistency of earthquake, tectonic faults, and oil fields (although, not all oil fields are associated with seismically active areas).
Now, keep in your mind's eye the above uplift and seismic activity maps and the following schematic from the Covenant oil field Discovery paper:Figure 1. Location of Covenant oil feld, uplifts, and selected thrust systems in the central Utah thrust belt. Numbers and sawteeth are on the hanging wall of the corresponding thrust system. Colored (light orange) area shows present and potential extent of the Navajo Sandstone Hingeline play in the central Utah thrust belt.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... ges/01.htm
Hydrothermal activity is noted in both the White Tiger oil field and the Covenant oil field:
Diagenetic characteristics of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone in the Covenant oil field, central Utah thrust belt, by W. T., Parry, Marjorie A. Chan,, Barbara P. Nash (2009):
http://doi.aapg.org/data/open/offer.do? ... N08170.HTMParry, Chan, Nash wrote:...The reservoir temperature of 188F (87C) is too high for bacterial sulfate reduction and too low for geologically significant thermochemical sulfate reduction accounting for the association of abundant in produced [hydrothermal] water and trace pyrite in the core.
The presence of Dolomite is also reported at the Covenant oil field:Parry, Chan, Nash wrote:...Bleached dune facies in the core samples contains ferroan dolomite, quartz overgrowths that do not completely fill pore spaces, grain-coating and pore-filling illite, coarse-grained gray hematite, kaolinite, and trace pyrite. Reddish brown interdune facies are typically very fine-grained sandstone and siltstone and contain dolomite and ferroan dolomite cement...
As has been discussed before on this board, there is laboratory (Fischer-Tropsch industrial production of hydrocarbons) and field evidence that abiotic oil is a result of hydrothermal Fischer-Tropsch Type processes:Keith & Swan wrote:We suggest a third possibility--the generation of methane and heavier hydrocarbons through reactions that occur during cooling, fractionation, and deposition of dolomitic carbonates, metal-rich black shales, and other minerals from hydrothermal metagenic fluids. These fluids are proposed to be the product of serpentinization of carbon-rich peridotites under hydrogen-rich, reduced conditions.
Hydrothermal Hydrocarbons, by Stanley B. Keith and Monte M. Swan (2005)
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... /keith.htm
As can be seen by the Parry, Chan, Nash paper on the composition of the Covenant oil field, both Dolomite and iron are present in the Covenant oil field, as well as hydrothermal activity.
All these elements, and, the physical geology, as demonstrated with the contrast & comparison between the White Tiger oil field and the Covenant oil field are consistent with Abiotic Oil Theory.Hydrothermal Hydrocarbons, Keith & Swan (2005) wrote:Direct evidence for hydrothermal hydrocarbons continues to mount. Some of the more relevant observations include:
Hydrothermal dolomite (HTD) not only hosts hydrocarbons, but has trapped hydrocarbons during its deposition under hot hydrothermal conditions (100-200 C) (for example Hulen and others, 1994 at Railroad Valley, Nevada). HTD is associated with large oil and gas accumulations including the supergiant Ghawar field in Saudi Arabia (Cantrell and others, 2001).
Geochemistry of hydrocarbons, experimental work, and mass-balance calculations have identified the fluids that produce HTD as hot, strongly-reduced, hydrocarbon-rich chloride and/or bicarbonate brines containing elements exotic to basins such as Mg, Fe, Ni, V, Se, Co, and Zn. Indeed, many oil field brines may represent the original hydrothermal carrier fluid for reservoir hydrocarbons.
Virtually all oil is now known to contain nanodiamond particles and their diamondoid overgrowths. Nanodiamond presence strongly suggests a high-pressure, high-temperature origin at some point in the generation, migration, and deposition of the hydrocarbon (Dahl and others, 2003 a and b).
Thermogenic abiogenic low-C number hydrocarbon gases (mainly methane) have been experimentally produced under hydrothermal conditions that simulate serpentinization of a peridotite source (Berndt and others, 1996; Horita and Berndt, 1999). Ultrathermogenic methane has also been produced experimentally by reacting magnetite, calcite, and water in a diamond anvil high-pressure apparatus under mantle pressures and temperatures (Science News, 2004).
Oil has been shown to produce copious amounts of catalytic gas by heating above 130 C in the presence of native metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. The rates of reaction are geologically instantaneous and easily fit within the lifespan of a hydrothermal plume system (Mango, and others, 1994).
Humans have been unintentionally modeling and producing gasoline under hydrothermal hydrocarbon conditions for decades. Starting in the Second World War industrial scale ‘hydrothermal’ gasolines have been produced by injecting hydrogen into hot carbon oxides produced from pyrolysis of coal cokes and subsequently cooling and condensing the hydrothermal mixture across a metalliferous (native metal) catalytic interface (Fischer-Tropsch process, see Szatmari, 1989).
Large methane-charged hydrothermal seepages have been recently discovered in oceanic transform environments such as the Lost City ‘white smoker’ field in the central Atlantic (Kelley and others, 2001, Fruh-Green, 2004). These seepage phenomena provide evidence that serpentine-sourced, crustal-scale hydrocarbon systems may breach the lithosphere. Where they do so, at a subaqueous interface, they may furnish inorganic hydrocarbon, metal, and other chemical exhalative material for black shale accumulations. Indeed, hydrocarbons generated by this process may still be replenishing producing reservoirs (for example, the Eugene Island 300 reservoir in the deep Gulf of Mexico).
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... /keith.htm
Eugene Coste wrote:[surveying] We now go north-east of Pittsburg to the Middle and Northern oil fields [where, again, multiple "sands" in the same geologic column were found to have hydrocarbons]... We have then at last reached the Archaean Crystalline floor without finding this home and, on the top of it we record the highest pressure for the gas yet recorded... Now! what is the source?... Our negative proofs then become a most positive conclusive proof that the home [origin] of our wanderers [oil & gas] is below the Archaean in the fluid magma. -- Eugene Coste, geologist, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Wikipedia wrote:Kudryavtsev's Rule states that any region in which hydrocarbons are found at one level will also have hydrocarbons in large or small quantities at all levels down to and into the basement rock. Thus, where oil and gas deposits are found, there will often be coal seams above them. Gas is usually the deepest in the pattern, and can alternate with oil. All petroleum deposits have a capstone, which is generally impermeable to the upward migration of hydrocarbons. This capstone leads to the accumulation of the hydrocarbon.
Anaconda, February 29, 2012, wrote:Now, let's look at an abstract of a paper reporting on an oil field in the Sirte Basin (among many oil fields in the Sirte Basin).
The Geology of the Nafoora Oilfield, Sirte Basin, Libya, H. S. Belazi (1989)Belazi wrote:Abstract
The Nafoora oilfield is situated on a major tectonic uplift in the eastern Sirte Basin, the Amal-Nafoora High. Four oilfields have been discovered on this uplift – Amal, Rakb, Augila and Naffora.
Drilling on this high encountered hydrocarbon entrapment in over a dozen distinct stratigraphic units. These reservoirs range in age from Pre-Cambrian basement to Miocene sands. The most important reservoirs in the Nafoora field are the sandstones of the Amal (Cambro-Ordovician) and Maragh (Upper Cretaceous) Formations. Reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous, Palaeocene and Eocene carbonates are as important as those in the sandstones.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... x/abstract
The author, Belazi, reports "hydrocarbon entrapment" is observed "in over a dozen distinct stratigraphic units." A stratigraphic unit is a layer of rock in the geologic column. These stratigraphic layers start with the bedrock (crystalline basement) and work up to the surface. Each layer of rock can vary widely, yet, each is identifiable as a seperate layer of rock. So, hydrocarbons are identified up and down the stratigraphic column in over a dozen distinct layers of rock.
Next, Belazi reports, "These reservoirs range in age from Pre-Cambrian basement to Miocene sands." So, not only are there over a dozen seperate layers of rock with hydrocarbon deposits, but the first petroleum deposit is directly above and/or within the crystalline basement, the deepest and oldest body of rock in the column, consistent with Kudryavtsev's Rule, and up to the Miocene sands, which are a more recent rock layer. Over ten geological epochs seperate the Pre-Cambrian basement and Miocene sands. As Belazi reports, an important petroleum reservoir exists in the Cambro-Ordovician level of rock, so, this deposit is at a depth on the stratigraphic column between the Cambrian and Ordovician levels, close to the bottom of the geologic column. And another important petroleum reservoir exists seven geologic epochs above the Cambro-Ordovician in the Upper Cretaceous.
All the above discussion fits within Kudryavtsev's Rule like a hand fits in a glove and exactly as Abiotic Oil Theory predicts. "Kudryavtsev's Rule states that any region in which hydrocarbons are found at one level will also have hydrocarbons in large or small quantities at all levels down to and into the basement rock."
In the Nafoora oilfield in the Sirte Basin that is apparently just so.
Anaconda, February 29, 2012, wrote:GeoScience Limited
HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION FROM FRACTURED BASEMENT FORMATIONS Version 5.1
This compilation presents brief details of the occurrences of commercial hydrocarbon reservoirs in fractured basement rocks from over 19 different countries.Basement Reservoirs of Libya, North Africa
Considerable volumes of oil were discovered in Libya during the late 1950's / early 1960's (Roberts 1970).. Oil is mainly produced from the Sirte basin. The Amal and Nafoora-Augila fields lie on the Rakb high in the eastern part of the Sirte basin. However, the Amal field reservoir rock is sedimentary in nature (Paleozoic Amal quartzose sandstone) rather than igneous or metamorphic.
Precambrian granite is the host for one of the primary oil producing reservoirs in the Nafoora-Augila field, which is one of the main giant fields in the Sirte basin (Belgasem 1991). The fractured and weathered basement (a late Precambrian or early Paleozoic granite) is one of three producing horizons. Some of the oil wells started production from the basement reservoir only, while others produced from the basement and/or sedimentary reservoirs.
The basement rocks are gradations of granophyre, granophyricgranite, granite and rhyolite (Belgasem et al 1990). The basement reservoir contains a large accumulation of oil in fracture and weathered porosities. Due to the mineralogical complexity of the reservoir and the heterogeneous nature of the fracture features, the weathered and fracture porosity distribution is not well known.
The Nafoora-Augila field is located in the northeast of Libya(southeast of the Amal field), and is at the top of the Rakb high. The Nafoora-Augila area originally was a concession of Oasis Oil Co., the owner of the Amal field. The company drilled two wells near the top of the high. Oasis abandoned the concession as the wells proved to be dry. The concession was then obtained by Occidental Petroleum (UK) Ltd in 1966. The first successful well of Occidental was Dl, which had an initial production of 14,800 bbl/day. Production came from porous fossiliferous limestone perforated throughout the interval from 8,530 to 8,563 ft (2,600 to 2,610 m). This reservoir rock was lower Rakb carbonate and was not a basement reservoir(P'An 1982).
The first basement reservoir encountered was Well D2, drilled on possibly the highest point of the high. Well D2 produced at a rate of 7,627 bbl/day from devitrified rhyolite and highly weathered and fractured granophyre. Well D9 also produced from the basement only, with an initial production of 1,500 bbl/day. The reservoir rock was weathered granite. Wells D3, D4, D5 and D6 were all step out tests that became oil wells, the most productive being D5 which produced at a stabilised rate of 14,140 bbl/day from two perforated intervals consisting of 59 ft (18 m) of carbonate rock and 39ft (12 m) of granite. Well D6 produced from the basement reservoir, with an initial flow of 1,200 bbl/day. D8 was an openhole basement completion, testing at 18,000 bbl/day from basement rocks and36 ft (11 m) of perforated carbonate rocks (P'An op cit).
http://www.hendersonpetrophysics.com/fr ... 2.html#lib
Wikipedia entry for Nikolai Kudryavtsev wrote:The Lost Soldier Field in Wyoming has oil pools, he stated, at every horizon of the geological section, from the Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement to the upper Cretaceous deposits. A flow of oil was also obtained from the basement itself.
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