Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Beyond the boundaries of established science an avalanche of exotic ideas compete for our attention. Experts tell us that these ideas should not be permitted to take up the time of working scientists, and for the most part they are surely correct. But what about the gems in the rubble pile? By what ground-rules might we bring extraordinary new possibilities to light?
archivus
Posts: 7
Joined: Sat Jun 15, 2019 3:58 pm

Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by archivus » Thu Jan 02, 2020 3:47 am

At the 10th Geopolymer Camp in 2018, Prof. Joseph Davidovits presented during his annual keynote his last studies on the Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths. In November 2017, an international team (a geologist from Universidad San Pablo at Arequipa, Peru and a member of the Geopolymer Institute) went on the site to carry on a survey on these stones. After different analysis on thin sections and under the electronic microscope, Joseph Davidovits claims that he has found "organic matter in volcanic rock", which is, by nature, impossible.

Video of presentation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rf9qK9QTlq0

The paper is here:
"Ancient organo-mineral geopolymer in South-American Monuments: Organic matter in andesite stone. SEM and petrographic evidence"
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 4219300288

More information at the geopolymer institute:
https://www.geopolymer.org/archaeology/ ... u-bolivia/
Extended Abstract
The first results of this research were published recently in leading international scientific journals:

On the geopolymer sandstone megalithic slabs: J. Davidovits, L. Huaman, R. Davidovits, “Ancient geopolymer in South American monuments. SEM and petrographic evidence “, Materials Letters 235 (2019) 120-124. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2018.10.033, on line 8 October 2018.
On the geopolymer andesite volcanic “H” structures: J. Davidovits, L. Huaman, R. Davidovits, “Ancient organo-mineral geopolymer in South American Monuments: organic matter in andesite stone. SEM and petrographic evidence”, Ceramics International 45 (2019) 7385-7389, DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.024, on line 4 January 2019.
The study carried out on the monumental stones constituting the Pumapunku site in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, proves that the stones are artificial and are not carved with unknown technology or by extraterrestrials. It is the human genius, intelligently exploiting the resources of its environment, who created these marvels.

Tiahuanaco, on Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, is a village known throughout the world for its mysterious Gate of the Sun, ruins of temples and its pyramid. Archaeologists consider that this site was built well before the Incas, around 600 to AD 700. The site of Pumapunku is right next door with the ruins of an enigmatic pyramidal temple built at the same time. Because it is not restored and developed for touristic activity, it is less known to the general public. However, there are two architectural curiosities there: four giant red sandstone terraces weighing between 130 and 180 tons and small blocks of andesite, an extremely hard volcanic stone, whose complex shapes and millimetric precision are incompatible with the technology of the time. And for good reason, since archeology tells us that the Tiwanakans had only stone tools and no metal hard enough to carve the rock. But they would have carved the gigantic blocks of red sandstone (these ancient blocks are the largest of all the American continent!) and they were able to carry these hundreds of tons on the site, then to adjust them precisely. Also, they would have been able to carve other smaller blocks made of volcanic andesite, an impossible-to-carve stone with an incredible finish! Archaeologists cannot give any rational explanations on how this was possible. Therefore, for the general public, the assumptions generally advanced to explain these wonders are the achievement by a lost ancient super civilization or by aliens’ involvement.

In November 2017, the scientists gathered samples taken in the red sandstone and andesite from the Pumapunku site. For the first time, these stones were analyzed under the electron microscope, this had never been done before! They discovered the artificial nature of the stones. They compared the monuments’ stones with the local geological resources and found many differences.

Andesite rock is a volcanic stone from magma. It is composed mainly of silica in the form of plagioclase feldspar, amphibole and pyroxene. But the scientists have discovered the presence of an organic matter based on carbon. Carbon-based organic matter does not exist in a volcanic rock formed at high temperatures because it is vaporized. It is impossible to find it in andesite rock. And because we found organic matter inside the volcanic andesitic stone, the scientists will have the opportunity to carry out a Carbon-14 dating analysis and provide the exact age of the monuments. This organic element is a geopolymer based on carboxylic acids which was therefore added by human intervention into andesite sand to form a kind of cement.

The giant blocks of red sandstone raise another problem. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of quartz grains and a clay binder. There are several possible geological sources but none correspond to the stones of the archaeological monuments. No known quarry is able to provide massive blocks of 10 meters long. In addition, the local stone is friable and small in size. The scientists have discovered under the electron microscope that the red sandstone of Pumapunku cannot come from the region because it contains elements, such as sodium carbonate, not found in the local geology. Therefore, where does the stone come from? From hundreds to thousands of kilometers? With what means have they been transported? In fact, electron microscopic analysis proves that the composition of the sandstone could be artificial (a ferro-sialate geopolymer) and manufactured to form cement.

What is this technology mastered by the Tiwanakans? Artificial stones were formed as cement. But, it is not a modern cement, it is a natural geological cement obtained by geosynthesis. For this, they took naturally friable and eroded rock like red sandstone from the nearby mountain, on the one hand, and on the other hand, unconsolidated volcanic tuff from the nearby Cerro Kapia volcano in Peru to form andesite. They created cement either from clay (the same red clay that Tiwuanakans used for pottery) and sodium carbonate salts from Laguna Cachi in the Altiplano Desert to the south, to form red sandstone. For gray andesite, they invented an organo-mineral binder based on natural organic acids extracted from local plants and other natural reagents. This cement was then poured into molds and hardened for a few months. Without a thorough knowledge of geopolymer chemistry, which studies the formation of these rocks by geosynthesis, it is difficult to recognize the artificial nature of the stones. This chemistry is not a difficult science to master. It is an extension of the knowledge of Tiwanakans in ceramics, mineral binders, pigments and above all an excellent knowledge of their environment. Without the selection of good raw materials, these extraordinary monuments could not have been created 1400 years ago.

Finally, this scientific discovery confirms local legends that say, “The stones were made with plant extracts able to soften the stone.” This explanation has always been rejected by archaeologists because it made no sense. The evidence provided by the team of scientists from France and Peru shows that the oral tradition was right: they made soft stones that could harden! The hypothesis of the lost ancient super civilization or alien intervention is false. Tiwanakuans were intelligent human beings. They knew their environment perfectly and knew how to exploit the resources brought by nature.

In addition to the Carbon-14 dating analysis, further studies will soon be carried out to determine whether certain monuments in the Cuzco region of Peru have been built with the same scientific knowledge.

dren
Posts: 14
Joined: Fri Sep 06, 2019 2:25 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by dren » Thu Jan 02, 2020 5:05 pm

Interesting. Goes to show that what the locals say may have some truth in it. I'd like them to analyze the Incan blocks that are odd shaped but fit perfectly. Perhaps this is how they got them to fit so tight. Soften the sides and they melt into each other.

User avatar
JP Michael
Posts: 222
Joined: Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:19 am

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by JP Michael » Fri Jan 03, 2020 12:49 am

This actually reminds me of Davidovits' reasearch on the pyramids. He supposed that the precise construction of the pyramids was done using ancient cement technologies similar to what is mentioned here, although the model of construction he suggested is not without some issues.[1] Other research suggests that microbial action can cause rapid solidification of sediment to stone.[2] I find this to be a very promising research field and one that continues to sound the death knell of millions-of-years geology.

[1] T. Harris, "Building the ancient pyramids of Giza", 2 June 2013.
[2] D. Catchpoole, "From sand to rock - quickly!", 3 Nov 2009.

User avatar
Solar
Posts: 1378
Joined: Mon Mar 17, 2008 10:05 am

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by Solar » Mon Jan 06, 2020 4:32 pm

Thank you for posting this Archivus. I have all of this in my bookmarks but didn’t find time to post. Fascinating topic:

Megalithic Softening of Stone Part 1

Megalithic Softening of Stone Part 2
"Our laws of force tend to be applied in the Newtonian sense in that for every action there is an equal reaction, and yet, in the real world, where many-body gravitational effects or electrodynamic actions prevail, we do not have every action paired with an equal reaction." — Harold Aspden

User avatar
The Great Dog
Posts: 261
Joined: Thu Apr 02, 2009 11:58 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by The Great Dog » Mon Jan 06, 2020 4:49 pm

I have been thinking along those lines for awhile, now. Like most people, I immediately discounted "geopolymers" as an explanation for the Great Pyramid and other temple complexes around the world. However, after looking closely at Peruvian megaliths, it seems more reasonable when certain concepts are considered. The anomalous "knobs" and "nipples" on the stone faces; the "belly" effect in the middle of the stones; the microscopic alignment and the impossibility of transporting hundred-ton stones over mountains and valleys for dozens of kilometers.

Rather than hard molds, I think that jute bags could be an alternative. That would eliminate the need for trees, since hemp grows everywhere.

Anthropologists and archeologists have been pounding their heads against those stones for decades.

TGD
There are no other dogs but The Great Dog

archivus
Posts: 7
Joined: Sat Jun 15, 2019 3:58 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by archivus » Mon Jan 13, 2020 12:31 am

And for those interested, here is a potential way that the geopolymers were produced (from 1931 Russian book):
How to make Granite
Pure fine sand, pyrites or any other mass containing flint is mixed with freshly calcined and crushed lime in the following proportion: 10g sand or pyrit and 1g lime. Lime is quenched by the humidity of the sand, corrodes flint and forms a thin layer around each silicon grit. Upon cooling, the mixture is softened with water. Then take 10g crushed granite and 1g lime and knead in place. Both mixtures are placed in a metal form so that the mixture of sand and lime forms the very middle of the object, and the mixture of granite with lime and the outer shell are from 6 to 12 mm (depending on the thickness of the prepared object ) In conclusion, the mass is pressed and hardened by drying it in air. The coloring matter is iron ore and iron oxide, which are mixed hot with granular granite.
If they want to give special hardness to objects formed from the above composition, then they are put in potassium silicate for an hour and finally to heat at 150 ° C.
There is a lot more including how to make precious stones etc (this is in Russian but you can use Google translate to convert it)
http://retrolib.narod.ru/books4/1931_Brodersen.pdf

User avatar
The Great Dog
Posts: 261
Joined: Thu Apr 02, 2009 11:58 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by The Great Dog » Mon Jan 13, 2020 7:27 pm

Way back when, Michael Steinbacher met a guy he called, "Colorado Mike". Mike could make granite by putting soil and pebbles into a crucible and then putting the electrodes from a plasma torch into the mix. According to reports, after a few minutes a hard lump of granite was in the bottom of the vessel.

Since granite comes in a multitude of forms, mixing various soils in an appropriate energy field could create all of them.

https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/wp-con ... scaled.jpg

TGD
There are no other dogs but The Great Dog

User avatar
The Great Dog
Posts: 261
Joined: Thu Apr 02, 2009 11:58 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by The Great Dog » Mon Jan 13, 2020 7:31 pm

One more thing -- re: my post about geopolymers...it could also explain the surfaces of Stonehenge stone faces. One side of the standing stones is rough, while the other is smooth.
There are no other dogs but The Great Dog

dren
Posts: 14
Joined: Fri Sep 06, 2019 2:25 pm

Re: Professional Research concludes Tiwanaku / Pumapunku Megaliths are Artificial Geopolymers

Unread post by dren » Tue Jan 14, 2020 11:52 am

Maybe those old batteries were used for more than just electroplating items.

Post Reply

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest