Watch this video.
Relativity: how people get time dilation wrong
It's part of a series of beautiful videos from Fermilab, that are absolutely wrong. You need to watch them, and you will see the problem. He keeps pointing out that things don't make sense, that they create a "Paradox".
That's the point.
- If you have a "Paradox" then you are not looking at all of the information.
- If their is a "Paradox" it is wrong, and you have to find what is wrong in your experiment.
- If after all of your experiments, and the "Paradox" is still there, then you are missing something, or adding something that is not there.
Does this guy actually believe what he is saying? Possibly, but "belief" is not science.
Don't get me wrong, a "Paradox" is a great starting point for experimentation, so they are very useful things.
Look at Olbers' Paradox, asking why is the night sky dark instead of being filled with light. There is no "Paradox" because if you look at the night sky, with the right equipment
, you will see light everywhere. They had a "Paradox" in the past, because they did not have enough information, or the right equipment.
There is nothing wrong with Olbers' Paradox as a great starting point for experiment to find out if there are any dark regions of the sky, but it is just a starting point.
Now, let's get to the "Twins Paradox" and "time dilation".
I can't remember which EU lecture I watched, but one guy who worked at CERN pointed out that when grad students show up for work, the first thing the professor has to tell them, is:
- Time dilation does not occur.
CERN accelerates particles close to the speed of light, and time does not "dilate" for those particles. The energy built up in the particles become other particles when they collide, but I digress.
- Too many people are invested in "Twins Paradox" and "time dilation" to let it go.
The example that people always give is of high energy mesons living longer than low energy mesons as being evidence of "time dilation", and that contains the actual answer. High energy particles simply have a different "lifespan" than low energy particles. It does not mean that time "dilates". That is a leap too far.
- "Time dilation" is a fun concept that is used in fiction, like elves and dragons, but does not exist in reality. ex., Tau Zero by Poul Anderson is great science fantasy.
So no matter how fun the "thought experiment" seems, "time dilation" is still simply imagination, not reality, until it is shown to occur by experiment.
Now, hold on, you say, "time dilation" has been proven by experiment, time and again. (See what I did there. HA!)
Actually, no it has not.
PBS NOVA had a great program about atomic clocks and "time dilation":
Inside Einstein's Mind.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/video/ins ... eins-mind/
Look at the transcript on the page. Here is the main part:
NARRATOR: Today, 100 years after general relativity was first presented, new technology is allowing us to explore the most remarkable predictions of the theory: an expanding universe; black holes; ripples in space-time; and perhaps the most bizarre, the idea that not just space, but time, itself, is distorted by heavy objects.
NARRATOR: To prove it, a team of physicists is carrying out a remarkable experiment. They're using two atomic clocks that are in near perfect sync, accurate to a billionth of a second. The master clock remains at sea level while they take the second clock to the top of New Hampshire's Mount Sunapee.
General relativity tells us that as you move away from the mass of the planet, time should speed up. After four days at the top of the mountain, the test clock is taken back to the lab for comparison. There, they compare it to the sea level master clock. Four days ago they were in ticking in unison. But what about now?
DAVID SCHERER (Microsemi Corporation): You guys ready? This is it, right here. The time interval counter is going to show us the time difference between these two clock ticks.
You can see the time difference between them represented here, graphically: the clock that was up at the mountain for four days and our master clock.
NARRATOR: Gravity, the distortion of space and time, becomes weaker as you move away from the surface of the planet, so while the test clock was up the mountain, time sped up. It's now 20 nanoseconds, 20 billionths of a second, ahead of the sea level clock.
DAVID SCHERER: This is awesome.
NARRATOR: This distortion of time has surprising consequences. The Global Positioning System, something we all take for granted, wouldn't work without taking this into account. The engineers who built the G.P.S. system we use every day to pinpoint locations, had to ensure it adjusted for the time difference between clocks on satellites and receivers on the ground. If they didn't, G.P.S. would be off by six miles every day.
JIM GATES (University of Maryland): Your G.P.S. units use the results of general relativity. When you navigate in your car, you perhaps should give a word of thanks to Uncle Albert.
They had two atomic clocks sitting side-by-side in the lab. They synchronized the atomic clocks. They then took one atomic clock to the top of a mountain, left it there a few days, then brought it back down and compared the time shown on each atomic clock, and they did not match! The moved atomic clock was running faster than the stationary atomic clock.
- This shows that time moves slower based on gravity.
No, sorry, it does not.
The atomic clock that was taken to the top of the mountain was shaken by the journey. To test that, they should have one atomic clock on a shake table, shake it a while, then compare the time shown. That would be an experiment.
The other experiment they did was have an atomic clock in the lab and compare that to atomic clocks in the GPS satellites in Earth orbit(12,247 miles). Over time, the measured time starts to diverge, with the GPS atomic clocks running "faster" than the lab.
- This shows that time moves slower based on gravity.
Wow, that is so wrong.
The GPS atomic clock is moving at high speed, that means it should slow down, not get faster. Remember that stunt, decades ago, of flying atomic clocks in jet planes to show that they would slow down, and they did! Really? no, they didn't, they just got shaken, a lot!.
Yes, they took the speed of the GPS satellites into account, slowing down the clocks, and the height of the GPS satellite, and "declared" their results.
The real experiment would be to have an atomic clock sitting in geostationary orbit(22,236 miles) above the Earth, another atomic clock in a lab on the Earth, and compare those to the GPS satellites.
Guess what, the atomic clock in geostationary orbit is moving way faster than the GPS satellites, and is actually far enough away from the Earth to be in an even lower gravity than the GPS satellites, with the inverse-square law reduction.
- Earth radius, 3,950 miles
- GPS satellites, 12,247 miles
- geostationary orbit, 22,236 miles
Now that would be an experiment. The trouble is, they keep resetting the atomic clocks to synchronize them.
- That constant tweaking of the atomic clocks invalidates the experiment.
- No matter how well each atomic clock matches the other, they are not the same, will not work the same, will "drift" no matter what.
Every step along the way error is introduced into the system. Measuring the atomic clocks, transmitting the data, etc... So many errors built into the experiment itself. The "result" that they come up with floats within that "error". That makes it noise. They need to develop an experiment that gives results outside that "error" before they can claim a "result".
I was at University in the 1970s, getting my BS in Civil Engineering. (Yes, go ahead and play with the "BS" part. I'll wait. HA!)
In Chemistry, they had us do a deeply disturbing experiment that apparently these guys forgot, and is part of what is wrong with all the experiments mentioned.
We had electronic scales to measure weights at incredible accuracy for the day. They sat in their own little enclosures because a puff of air could change the results.
We took brass weights, a test weight. The scales were so accurate that we could not touch the weight with our fingers because it would weigh our fingerprints. We measured each test weight on two different electronic scales, and saw with precision that each scale measured a different value for each weight.
Think of it.
- Identical instruments, giving different values for the same test weight.
Even day to day, using only one electronic scale, the values will change over time because the instrument "drifts".
- When they report experiments on science programs, or you read the papers, if they do not report the "error" within the experiment, then they are not reporting science.
Remember, you can use "Paradox" to inspire experiments, that's awesome. But if all you have is "Paradox" then you do not have an answer.