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Nearby Barnard Dwarf Galaxy (NGC 6822). Credit: P. Massey (Lowell Obs.), G. Jacoby,
K. Olsen, C. Smith (NOAO/AURA/NSF) & T.A. Rector (NRAO/AUI/NSF)



Dwarf Galaxies Pose Big Problems
Apr 27, 2009

The swarm of small galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are too few and out of place, according to astronomers.

The Milky Way galaxy does not travel alone, it is accompanied by dozens of smaller galaxies with a more diffuse and irregular structure. According to a recent press release, there are too few dwarf companions in orbit, as well as issues with their locations. Instead of being distributed in a spherical shell, they lie in the same plane as the galactic disk.

As consensus theories of galaxy evolution predict, there should be hundreds of dwarf galaxies surrounding the Milky Way, since they are thought to have evolved through multiple collisions with other smaller galaxies. The remnants that were not absorbed into the Milky Way became the globular clusters and dwarf galaxies. Astronomical observations do not support the theory, however, prompting scientists to question the fundamental assumptions of Newtonian gravitational models.

The theory of dark matter was introduced many years ago because there appears to be too little visible material in galaxies to prevent them from coming apart. In fact, visible matter is said to make up only a small fraction of the Universe with over 95% being undetectable, inferred by its gravitational interaction with normal matter.

The gravitational attraction of the stars and gas is thought to be too weak for galaxies to retain their shapes as they spin. The stars within the dwarf galaxies seen circling the Milky Way move too fast for anything other than the gravity from dense clouds of dark matter to be influencing them, although this creates a conundrum for astronomers.

It is that speed and the "presence" of dark matter that are causing them to question Newton's gravity theory. Since galaxies and their dwarf allies are the putative leftovers from smaller galaxies crashing into each other in the remote past, there should be no dark matter in them. So, it is actually the collision of those two cosmological theories that is creating the darkness in the argument. If the Electric Universe theory is given credence there is no confusion and no need to rely on a hypothesis that requires the existence of a substance in vast amounts that cannot be seen.

Galaxies are not simple gravity-based structures that obey the laws of mechanics and momentum. They are not whirlpools of stars whose only reliable way to remain bonded together depends on a force that is extremely weak when compared to electromagnetism, for example. Electricity has been found to be over thirty-nine orders of magnitude more powerful as an attractive force than gravity.

As physicist Anthony Peratt demonstrated in his supercomputer analyses of galaxy formation, it is electricity flowing through dusty plasma that is responsible for the births of stars and galaxies. Since the activities of electrically conductive plasma can be scaled up by many powers of ten, galaxy clusters and superclusters are probably the result of electric current flow, as well. Such flows of electricity are commonly called Birkeland currents after their discoverer, Kristian Birkeland.

When Birkeland currents interact, they tend to twist around one another in a helical formation. A cross sectional analysis of the helices in laboratory experiments reveals the familiar barred-spiral shape of a galaxy. Considering Peratt's hypothesis, galaxies are most likely electrical in nature—electromagnetic forces act on them with such power that gravity can be ignored when discussing their shapes and behavior.

Electricity flows through a galaxy like the Milky Way along the polar axis and then out through the spiral arms. There is most likely a circuit across the galactic disk that divides, flowing upward and downward back into the poles. This circuit receives its driving power from Birkeland currents that connect the galaxy with the rest of the Universe where, presumably, billion-light-year long strands of magnetically confined electric filaments are transmitting power from one end of space to the other.

As the intergalactic Birkeland currents move through the center of the Milky Way, they may also generate a toroidal particle beam at the edge of the disk, which would energize a ring of stars. Observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have uncovered such a ring in the form of a separate structure that surrounds the galaxy at a reported distance of 120,000 light years.

Since the dwarf galaxies are also rotating in the galactic plane along with the ring, it seems logical to conclude that one force is acting on both. Electromagnetism, being substantially more powerful than gravity, causes the ring of stars and the dwarf galaxies to be aligned at right angles to the axial intergalactic magnetic field. The speed of the stellar motion—considered anomalous by the consensus view—is also explained by the stronger force of electromagnetic attraction.

In conclusion, the "unusual behavior" of stars and galaxies can be explained if astronomers would use their instruments to look for the signature of electricity in space. There are extremely sensitive detectors in orbit right now that are capable of increasing awareness, but instead they are being used to generate more mysteries. The electric motors of the galaxies could have been mapped years ago.

Stephen Smith



SPECIAL NOTE - **New Volumes Available:
We are pleased to announce a new e-book series THE UNIVERSE ELECTRIC. Available now, the first volume of this series, titled Big Bang, summarizes the failure of modern cosmology and offers a new electrical perspective on the cosmos. At over 200 pages, and designed for broadest public appeal, it combines spectacular full-color graphics with lean and readily understandable text.

**Then second and third volumes in the series are now available, respectively titled Sun and Comet, they offer the reader easy to understand explanations of how and why these bodies exist within an Electric Universe.

High school and college students--and teachers in numerous fields--will love these books. So will a large audience of general readers.

Visitors to the site have often wondered whether they could fully appreciate the Electric Universe without further formal education. The answer is given by these exquisitely designed books. Readers from virtually all backgrounds and education levels will find them easy to comprehend, from start to finish.

For the Thunderbolts Project, this series is a milestone. Please see for yourself by checking out the new Thunderbolts Project website, our leading edge in reaching new markets globally.

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Authors David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill introduce the reader to an age of planetary instability and earthshaking electrical events in ancient times. If their hypothesis is correct, it could not fail to alter many paths of scientific investigation.
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